Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children Paper

NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children Paper

Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children Paper

Week 3: Assessment Tools, Diagnostics, Growth, Measurement, and Nutrition in Adults and Children

Discussion: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children Paper

INITIAL POST

For this week’s discussion, I have selected the case of overweight child who is 5-year-old boy with overweight parents. This discussion will discuss the health-related risks which is relevant to the selected child. As an advanced practice nurse, it is important to assess weight-related health risks for pediatric patients and design effective strategies for communicating with parents or caregivers about children’s weight-related health.

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Health Issues and Risks

An obese child can be challenged with numerous health risks especially when their parents are also obese. The prevalence of obesity among United States preschool-aged children (2–5 years) (8.9%) was lower than among school-aged children (6–11 years) (17.5%) and adolescents (12–19 years) (20.5%) (National Center for Health Statistics, 2015). Childhood obesity can cause several physical, emotional, social problems such as diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, asthma, sleep disorders, low self-esteem and being bullied, behavior and learning problems, depression (Mayo Clinic, 2016). It is the parent’s responsibility to limit their limit child’s consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, to provide plenty of fruits and vegetables, encouraging small portion of meal appropriate for age (Ball, Dains, Flynn, Solomon & Stewart, 2015).

Specific Questions

There are so many questions to ask the parents about their children who are obese to gather the information to plan the care. As an advanced nurse practitioner, I would ask the parents about the child birth weight and height to know the basic of his growth. By knowing that, we can calculate the child’s milestones and with BMI we can know which percentile falls on this child. Another question I would ask is about child’s eating habits. How healthy the child eats, how often and what quantity, what type of food he or she is interested in? by knowing the child’s eating habit, we can figure out what is the cause of his or her obesity. Additionally, asking if the child has any bone deformity or problem that is limiting physical activity is an important aspect while collecting history of the child.  A practitioner can progress from novice to expert and become more efficient by asking the right questions in exercising clinical judgement by seeking relevant high quality information (Dains, Baumann & Scheibel, 2016).  Following are the three specific questions that I would ask parents;

  • What was the child ‘s birth weight and length? Also, what about your gestational weight?
  • Can you explain how is your child’s appetite or eating habits?
  • Does your child have any bone deformity or problems?

Strategies to Encourage Parents and Caregiver

Parents play a crucial role in helping children who are obese feel loved and in control of their weight and they should bring up the topic of health and fitness to help the child better understand how to cope with the situation. It is normal that some children may feel like insult when their parents talk about their weight, health and fitness who is very sensitive but the parents and caregiver should encourage the child to talk openly. According to Mayo Clinic (2016) following are the coping and support strategies for parents whose child is obese;

  • “Avoid weight talk. Negative comments about your own, someone else’s or your child’s weight can be hurtful to your child, even if they’re well-intended. Negative talk about weight can lead to poor body image. Instead, focus your conversation on healthy eating and positive body image.
  • Discourage dieting and skipping meals. Instead, encourage and support healthy eating and increased physical activity.
  • Find reasons to praise your child’s efforts. Celebrate small, incremental changes in behavior but don’t reward with food. Choose other ways to mark your child’s accomplishments, such as going to the bowling alley or a local park.
  • Talk to your child about his or her feelings. Help your child find ways other than eating to deal with emotions” (para. 2).

Therefore, parents play an important role in maintaining children health and can encourage children to eat healthy foods, do regular exercises, participate in sports, and share their feelings with parents or caregiver.

References for Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children Paper

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2015). Seidel’s guide to physical examination (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Dains, J. E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. (2016). Advanced health assessment and clinical diagnosis in primary care (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Mayo Clinic. (2016). Childhood obesity. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/childhood-obesity/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20354833

National Center for Health Statistics. (2015). Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth: United States, 2011–2014. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db219.pdf

NURS 6512N Module 2 Week 3 Case Study Instructions

Monospot Testing

Assignment 1: Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children
When seeking to identify a patient’s health condition, advanced practice nurses can use a diverse selection of diagnostic tests and assessment tools; however, different factors affect the validity and reliability of the results produced by these tests or tools. Nurses must be aware of these factors in order to select the most appropriate test or tool and to accurately interpret the results.

Not only do these diagnostic tests affect adults, body measurements can provide a general picture of whether a child is receiving adequate nutrition or is at risk for health issues. These data, however, are just one aspect to be considered. Lifestyle, family history, and culture among other factors are also relevant. That said, gathering and communicating this information can be a delicate process.

For this Assignment, you will consider the validity and reliability of different assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You will explore issues such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. You will also consider examples of children with various weight issues. You will explore how you could effectively gather information and encourage parents and caregivers to be proactive about their children’s health and weight.

Obesity remains one of the most common chronic diseases in the United States. As a leading cause of United States mortality, morbidity, disability, healthcare utilization and healthcare costs, the high prevalence of obesity continues to strain the United States healthcare system (Obesity Society, 2016). More than one-third (39.8%) of U.S. adults have obesity (CDC, 2018). The estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the U.S. was $147 billion in 2008 U.S. dollars; the medical costs for people who are obese were $1,429 higher than those of normal weight (CDC, 2018).

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the rate of childhood obesity has tripled in the past 30 years, with an estimated 13.7 million children and adolescents considered obese (CDC, 2018). When seeking insights about a patient’s overall health and nutritional state, body measurements can provide a valuable perspective. This is particularly important with pediatric patients. Measurements such as height and weight can provide clues to potential health problems and help predict how children will respond to illness.

Nurses need to be proficient at using assessment tools, such as the Body Mass Index (BMI) and growth charts, in order to assess nutrition-related health risks and pediatric development while being sensitive to other factors that may affect these measures. Body Mass Index is also used as a predictor for measurement of adult weight and health.

Assessments are constantly being conducted on patients, but they may not provide useful information. In order to ensure that health assessments provide relevant data, nurses should familiarize themselves with test-specific factors that may affect the validity, reliability, and value of these tools.
This week, you will explore various assessment tools and diagnostic tests that are used to gather information about patients’ conditions. You will examine the validity and reliability of these tests and tools. You will also examine assessment techniques, health risks and concerns, and recommendations for care related to patient growth, weight, and nutrition.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Evaluate validity and reliability of assessment tools and diagnostic tests

Analyze diversity considerations in health assessments

Apply concepts, theories, and principles related to examination techniques, functional assessments, and cultural and diversity awareness in health assessment

Apply assessment skills to collect patient health histories

Learning Resources

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Seidel\’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Chapter 3, Examination Techniques and Equipment

This chapter explains the physical examination techniques of inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation. This chapter also explores special issues and equipment relevant to the physical exam process.

Chapter 8, Growth and Nutrition

In this chapter, the authors explain examinations for growth, gestational age, and pubertal development. The authors also differentiate growth among the organ systems.

Chapter 5, Recording Information (Previously read in Week 1)
This chapter provides rationale and methods for maintaining clear and accurate records. The text also explores the legal aspects of patient records.

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Student checklist: Health history guide. In Seidel\’s guide to physical examination (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Credit Line: Seidel\’s Guide to Physical Examination, 9th Edition by Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. Copyright 2019 by Elsevier Health Sciences. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Health Sciences via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, April 9). Childhood overweight & obesity. http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/

This website provides information about overweight and obese children. Additionally, the website provides basic facts about obesity and strategies to counteracting obesity.

Chaudhry, M. A. I., & Nisar, A. (2017). Escalating health care cost due to unnecessary diagnostic testing. Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, (3), 569.

This study explores the escalating healthcare cost due the unnecessary use of diagnostic testing. Consider the impact of health insurance coverage in each state and how nursing professionals must be cognizant when ordering diagnostics for different individuals.

Dains, J. E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. (2019). Advanced health assessment and clinical diagnosis in primary care (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Credit Line: Advanced Health Assessment and Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care, 6th Edition by Dains, J.E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. Copyright 2019 by Mosby. Reprinted by permission of Mosby via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Chapter 1, Clinical Reasoning, Evidence-Based Practice, and Symptom Analysis

This chapter introduces the diagnostic process, which includes performing an analysis of the symptoms and then formulating and testing a hypothesis. The authors discuss how becoming an expert clinician takes time and practice in developing clinical judgment.

Noble, H., & Smith, J. (2015) Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research . Evidence Based Nursing, 18(2), pp. 34-35.

Nyante, S. J., Benefield, T. S., Kuzmiak, C. M., Earnhardt, K., Pritchard, M., & Henderson, L. M. (2021). Population level impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on breast cancer screening and diagnostic procedures. Cancer, 127(12), 2111-2121. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33460

Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children Paper

Seidel, H. M., Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2011). History subjective data checklist. In Mosby’s guide to physical examination (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Credit Line: Mosby’s Guide to Physical Examination, 7th Edition by Seidel, H. M., Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. Copyright 2011 by Elsevier. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier via the Copyright Clearance Center.

This History Subjective Data Checklist was published as a companion to Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination (8th ed.) by Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., & Flynn, J.A. Copyright Elsevier (2015). From https://evolve.elsevier.com

Sullivan, D. D. (2019). Guide to clinical documentation (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.
• Chapter 2, \”The Comprehensive History and Physical Exam\” (Previously read in Week 1)
• Chapter 5, \”Pediatric Preventative Care Visits\” (pp. 91 101)

Optional Resource

LeBlond, R. F., Brown, D. D., & DeGowin, R. L. (2020). DeGowin’s diagnostic examination (11th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Medical.
Chapter 3, \”The Screening Physical Examination\”
Chapter 17, \”Principles of Diagnostic Testing\”
Chapter 18, \”Common Laboratory Tests\”

Assignment 1: Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

When seeking to identify a patient’s health condition, advanced practice nurses can use a diverse selection of diagnostic tests and assessment tools; however, different factors affect the validity and reliability of the results produced by these tests or tools. Nurses must be aware of these factors in order to select the most appropriate test or tool and to accurately interpret the results.

Not only do these diagnostic tests affect adults, body measurements can provide a general picture of whether a child is receiving adequate nutrition or is at risk for health issues. These data, however, are just one aspect to be considered. Lifestyle, family history, and culture among other factors are also relevant. That said, gathering and communicating this information can be a delicate process.

For this Assignment, you will consider the validity and reliability of different assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You will explore issues such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. You will also consider examples of children with various weight issues. You will explore how you could effectively gather information and encourage parents and caregivers to be proactive about their children’s health and weight.

To Prepare

Review this week’s Learning Resources and consider factors that impact the validity and reliability of various assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You also will review examples of pediatric patients and their families as it relates to BMI.

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to one of the following Assignment options by your Instructor: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests (option 1), or Child Health Case (Option 2).

Note: Please see the Course Announcements section of the classroom for your assignments from your Instructor.

Search the Walden Library and credible sources for resources explaining the tool or test you were assigned. What is its purpose, how is it conducted, and what information does it gather?

Also, as you search the Walden library and credible sources, consider what the literature discusses regarding the validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, ethical dilemmas, and controversies related to the test or tool.

If you are assigned Assignment Option 2 (Child), consider what health issues and risks may be relevant to the child in the health example.

o Based on the risks you identified, consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.
o Consider how you could encourage parents or caregivers to be proactive toward the child’s health.
The Assignment : Monospot testing

Assignment (3 to 4 pages, not including title and reference pages):

Assignment Option 1: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests:

Include the following:

A description of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test you were assigned is used in healthcare.
o What is its purpose?
o How is it conducted?
o What information does it gather?

Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tool’s validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Include references in appropriate APA formatting.

By Day 6 of Week 3

Submit your Assignment.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK3Assgn1+last name+first initial.(extension) as the name.

Click the Week 3 Assignment 1 Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.

Click the Week 3 Assignment 1 link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.

Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as WK3Assgn1+last name+first initial.(extension) and click Open.

If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.

Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Excellent Good
In 3 – 4 pages, address the following:

A description of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test you were assigned is used in healthcare.
o What is its purpose?
o How is it conducted?
o What information does it gather? 30 (30%) – 35 (35%)

The response clearly, accurately, and with specific detail describes how the assessment tool or diagnostic test assigned is used in healthcare, including its purpose, how it is conducted, and what information it gathers.

Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tool’s validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. 45 (45%) – 50 (50%)

The response accurately and thoroughly evaluates the test or tool\’s validity and reliability, and explains any issues with clear sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Student\’s research is clear, accurate, and appropriate for the evaluation.

Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction are provided that delineate all required criteria. 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion are provided that delineate all required criteria.

Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.
Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running heads, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list. 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct APA format with no errors.