Basic Windshield Survey – Urban

Basic Windshield Survey – Urban

Basic Windshield Survey – Urban

Introduction

Population and the physical environment have a significant effect on Health. A community assessment seeks to find these health gaps in at-risk populations and helps formulate interventions to improve the health of a vulnerable group. One way of doing a community needs assessment is by performing a windshield survey. This paper focuses on a windshield survey of sentinel city to assess demographic and physical environment characteristics and health data to identify and solve health concerns of a risk population within an urban setting.

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Observations in the Sentinel City Tour

Sentinel city consists of four districts. The subsystems vary greatly in sentinel city, depending on the district. There are significant differences between the four areas. Nightingale City Square is the first district where the people seem well off compared to the other districts. There were white, African-Americans, and Asians well-dressed men, women, children, and families.

The majority of the people in the streets are women and children. However, people of all ages and gender: school-aged, adults, teenagers, and older adults, are seen throughout the city. Some of them have dogs with leashes. Some elderly members of the society are seen sitting on benches in parks and outside business regions. Strangely, the children were accompanied by both parents, which could be a sign of good parenthood. Most of the people in the street are middle-aged. The gender distribution is relatively even. A disabled person is also seen in the streets. Nightingale City Square seems to be the wealthiest, also reflected in the high household income ($269,550; the highest in sentinel city). Other indicators are well-maintained buildings, well-trimmed fences, new cars, shrubbery trees, clean streets, and clean sidewalks.

Police officers are seen everywhere. The tarmac road is also clean and well maintained. A large grocery in this region sells all types of foods, fresh fruits and vegetables, and other organic and non-organic materials. Strangely, a stray cat is seen by the garbage outside Joe’s grocery. Trash is also seen by the roadside before leaving the district. Acer Tech has only a few differences from Nightingale. It is being refurbished, with some debris by the buildings.

In addition to other transport means, train transport is available here. In Casper Park, there is an abandoned lot, probably homeless, trash at the corners of buildings, and a stray dog. In Industrial Heights, the buildings are run down and mostly made of bricks. There is a factory emitting smoke also seen in this region. Debris is seen floating in the air. More so, there is observable gang violence in this city. There is a Catholic Church offering soup to the poor and homeless in this region.

The Teen Population

The interest population in sentinel city is the teens. 21.7% of the total population are between ages 5-18. The teens are seen walking in the streets and also in the parks playing. Vulnerable groups face several health disparities. There are differences in the burden of disease, injury, violence, or opportunities that negatively affect a particular group. The teens are relatively disadvantaged in healthcare. Sentinel City teens seem to battle sexually transmitted infections (STIs), teen pregnancy, substance and drug abuse, and mental health problems. The Sentinel City healthcare sector provides alarming data on the Health of the teenage population.

Major Health Concerns Among Teens

Mental health problems usually start at adolescent stage. Globally, suicides are the leading cause of death for thirteen-year-olds (CDC, n.d). Unintentional injuries secondary to mental health issues are a significant concern among teens globally. According to the CDC, the leading causes of poor mental health among teens include obesity, other health-related issues, insecurity, teenage pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections (CDC, n.d.). These risk factors are rather rampant in Sentinel city, putting the teens at risk for mental health problems.

Sexually Transmitted Disease. According to the Sentinel hospital data, there is a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections such as gonorrhea and chlamydia. Sexually transmitted infections are preventable with the proper education and prophylactics. According to the CDC (2019), youth ages 15-24 contribute to half the new STI infections globally. This presents a significant problem to our health sector today. The percentage (over 70% of gonorrhea and chlamydia) in sentinel city are above the world ratings, which is relatively high and requires urgent attention.

Substance Abuse includes alcohol, recreational drugs, and prescription drug use. According to the population statistics, 26% consume alcohol, 24% tobacco, 13% marijuana. Teens are particularly exposed to drug abuse due to their experimenting nature, stress, and peer pressure. The problem is more significant because a majority of the teens do it in private and never report drug abuse. Mack, Jones, and Ballesteros (2017) state that “drug overdose and drug-related injuries claimed over 50,000 deaths in 2015)” (p3). The youths are severely affected by drug abuse and drug-related injuries, and thus interventions are required to end drug abuse.

SMART Goals Related To The Health Problems

Smart Goal 1

All teens 13-19 years of age will be screened annually for mental health issues and risk factors. Healthy People 2020 aims to improve mental health through prevention and by ensuring access to appropriate, quality mental health services” (Healthy People 2020, n.d.). Each noted risk or mental health issue should be addressed. The population should also be sensitized on mental health issues, as well as how to recognize and report such issues. The teens under treatment should also be followed up until their total recovery.

Smart Goal 2

All teenagers must receive sex education to prevent STDs and teen pregnancy. Healthy People 2020 initiative aims to “Promote healthy sexual behaviors, strengthen community capacity, and increase access to quality services to prevent sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)” (Healthy People 2020, n.d.). Teens should be screened regularly for sexually transmitted infections, HIV, and pregnancy. Though controversial to some bodies and churches, they should be given free birth control methods.

Smart Goal 3

The teens should also be provided with education on drug and substance use and prevention. One goal of the Healthy People initiative is to “Reduce substance abuse to protect the health, safety, and quality of life for all, especially children” (Healthy People 2020, n.d.). A ‘say no to drugs’ campaign to encourage teens to avoid drug abuse is necessary. The motive is to ensure sentinel city is drug-free in the next few (2) years. Teens should be encouraged to report drug abuse cases and seek healthcare early to prevent addiction and dependence development.

Conclusion

Teenagers are often at risk for many health concerns. In sentinel city, teens have significant sexually transmitted infections, drug and substance abuse, and mental health problems. Teen pregnancies are decreasing, but the number is still high. The health people 2020 initiative and the CDC provide guidelines and goals that help protect the teen population and keep them disease-free. The government and healthcare institutions are on the frontline in fighting these problems. Well-laid interventions shall mitigate these health issues and enable teens to live healthy lives free of diseases, injury, or premature deaths.

References for Basic Windshield Survey – Urban

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d.). Diseases and Conditions. Retrieved on 10th August 12, 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/

Center for Disease Control (2019). Sexually transmitted illnesses Surveillance- Data and Statistics. Retrieved on 10th August 2021, from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwi8yKe0xabyAhV-DGMBHaUeBUoQFnoECAkQAw&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fstd%2Fstatistics%2Fdefault.htm&usg=AOvVaw3jN2H-tnv-2ufGeHJ_qzXj

Healthy People 2020 (n.d.). Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved on 10th August 2021, from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwj_9t33zKbyAhUOC2MBHTyQCI4QFnoECBcQAw&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.healthypeople.gov%2F2020%2FAbout-Healthy-People&usg=AOvVaw3FKJzrtNf8irO277e3zjdc

Mack, K. A., Jones, C. M., & Ballesteros, M. F. (2017). Illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas—United States. American journal of transplantation, 17(12), 3241-3252. http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6619a1

Basic Windshield Survey-Rurals

Introduction

A windshield survey involves a pure inspection of a phenomenon, community, or area without interfering with its processes (Kusomo, 2019). A windshield survey helps the healthcare professional assess all health-related behaviors of society, assess the effectiveness of community resources in healthcare, and denote any health disparities in a community. The findings of a windshield survey are used to set strategies and interventions to improve health status. This paper focuses on a windshield survey on a bus tour in Sentinel City, the city demographics, and the major health concerns for a targeted population (Under 18 years).

Windshield Survey Observations

Men, women, and children are all seen/ represented in the city. In the streets, women and children are the majority. The children are in school uniforms suggesting the presence of learning activities. A few adolescents/teens/youth can be seen scattered in the streets. One of the people I saw was disabled and in a wheelchair. Whites make up the majority of the people, with only a few blacks. A few industries are seen in Industrial Heights. Several other businesses are unevenly distributed in Acer Tech, Nightingale Square, and Casper Park. The city has a few parks where children and adolescents are seen playing. However, the city has limited space where adults and children can perform physical activities.

A few ran-down houses in industrial heights, homeless people in the streets, and garbage heaps are seen on the streets are indicators of poverty. A kitchen soup in the Industrial Heights district serving the poor and homeless shows poverty in this region. A group of people, probably homeless, are seen on the streets. Means of transport are varied. Road transport by bus is the primary means of transport. A few people are seen riding bicycles. There are signs of train transport and transport by foot is also common in this city. Several healthcare facilities are serving the community, including a fully equipped main hospital. They are, however, not evenly distributed. There are stray dogs and stray cats seen in the streets. The people seem to conform to religion and culture. A few people are seen in traditional attire. There is a Catholic church in Industrial Heights that serves soup to the poor and homeless. The presence of churches shows that the predominant religion is Christianity in Sentinel City.

Health concerns for Children and Adolescents and Adolescents and Healthcare goals

The children and adolescents in Sentinel City are a population of interest. Children and adolescents comprise 29% of the population (Sentinel City, n.d.). The population of interest is age-adjusted to accommodate the students in higher learning institutions. The pupils and the students all face a variety of issues of health concerns. A day is seen held captive by a gang. Statistics also show that students in higher learning have limited access to healthcare services and have a relatively high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases.

The health concerns include:

1. Violence/ insecurity in the community.

Gang-related violence is rampant in this city. Despite there being enough police officers on patrol, Industrial Heights and Casper Park are pretty insecure. A Gunman has abducted 30 children and six adults at ABC daycare (Sentinel City, n.d.). The community’s crime rate is relatively high. A burning car, protestors, and a barricaded stores with shattered windows are all indicators of violence in the community.

Healthy People 2020 main aim is to ensure safety and that people are free of injury and violence in the communities, thus avoiding injury consequences. From the statistics provided in sentinel city, injuries are the second leading cause of death after heart disease (Sentinel City, n.d.). Reported assaults and batteries are also quite rampant. Injuries are also among the leading causes of death in the US. Minor and fatal injuries are associated with “premature death, poor mental health, and high medical costs” (Kadir, Shenoda, & Goldhagen, 2019).

Psychological traumas such as kidnapping also negatively affect child development (Kadir, Shenoda, & Goldhagen, 2019). Security should be enhanced for the students and the children at all costs. More police officers should be put in patrols, and emergency calls availed to the population to enable the government to respond promptly to security emergencies. The goal is to ensure the safety of everyone, including children and adolescents.

2. Respiratory Health.

Air and water pollution are a significant concern throughout the Industrial Heights and Casper Park districts. Upper respiratory diseases are a significant concern for college-aged students in Sentinel City (Sentinel City, n.d.). Polluted air is a significant cause of respiratory illnesses. Protestors in the city probably protest against smoke-emitting factories in the area. Factory smoke components such as tar cause severe respiratory illnesses such as asthmatic attacks. Sentinel City Healthcare System data reveals a possible problem with respiratory illnesses. Cough, difficulty breathing needs, and defibrillation services contribute significantly to patients who seek emergency healthcare services. Healthy People 2020 aims to promote the health of all citizens by improving environmental health.

“Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all” (Healthy People 2020, n.d.) One main area covered by the goal is outdoor air quality. The outdoor air quality is poor in sentinel city. Limited free spaces in the city, few trees in the region, unattended garbage, and factories emitting smoke contribute to poor air quality. There is a need for regulation of the smoke-emitting factories. To improve outdoor air quality. The government and responsible bodies should also attend to the unattended garbage polluting the air. More trees should be planted in this air. These interventions should be carried out within a year to reduce the incidences of respiratory problems.

3. Sexually transmitted infections and teen pregnancy.

70% of those diagnosed with gonorrhea were between 15 and 24 years of age. This includes high school students and students in higher learning institutions. HPV and Chlamydia are also common STDs in this age bracket. Sentinel City STIs burden is relative to the current situation globally. There are incidences of sexually transmitted illness among teenagers (CDC, 2019). The number of teen pregnancies in this community is also relatively high. Healthy People 2020 aims “to prevent STDs and the complications of STDs by promoting healthy sexual behaviors, strengthening community capacity and increasing access to quality services” (Healthy People 2020, n.d.).

Intensification of school health education forums should be done in the community to minimize the prevalence of these problems in society. The education forums shall sensitize the students to the risks of irresponsible sexual behavior. The goal is to reduce the majority of sexually transmitted infections and teen pregnancies, promote responsible behavior and promote the overall well-being of this population.

4. Poor access to healthcare services

Sentinel City School District data shows that only 9% of the students have comprehensive student healthcare insurance services. 24% of the students have limited access to student healthcare insurance services, while a worrying 675 percent have no access to any healthcare insurance service. Access to healthcare services is covered goals of Healthy People 2020. Healthy people 2020 aims “to improve access to quality health care services in the community” (Healthy People 2020, n.d.). When the population accesses healthcare services easily, its health is usually high. Populations with poor healthcare access often have more disease burdens (Healthy People 2020, n.d.).

The government should make it mandatory for institutions of higher learning, high schools, and primary schools to have comprehensive student healthcare insurances for their students. The government should also fund insurance coverage to enable students to have access to healthcare. Students get healthcare funding from parents, and when that does not happen, students’ health can marginally deteriorate. In this case, the goal is to increase the healthcare funding and the number of students with comprehensive student healthcare insurance, promoting access to healthcare services leading to healthy lives free of diseases.

Conclusion

A windshield survey is necessary to identify health gaps in any society and should regularly be done to promote the health of communities continually. The children and adolescents in Sentinel City have myriad problems, as seen above. Age adjustment to accommodate students in higher learning institutions was also necessary because their needs are similar at some point. Security issues, access to healthcare services, STDs and teen pregnancies, and respiratory system illnesses are identified health concerns for this population. Interventions to mitigate these issues have also been identified. The overall goal is to ensure the population leads healthier lives, free of disease or injury, as per the Healthy People 2020 goals.

References

Center for Disease Control (2019). Sexually transmitted illnesses Surveillance- Data and Statistics. Retrieved on 10th August 2021, from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwi8yKe0xabyAhV-DGMBHaUeBUoQFnoECAkQAw&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fstd%2Fstatistics%2Fdefault.htm&usg=AOvVaw3jN2H-tnv-2ufGeHJ_qzXj

Healthy People 2020 (n.d.). Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Retrieved on 10th August 2021, from https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwj_9t33zKbyAhUOC2MBHTyQCI4QFnoECBcQAw&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.healthypeople.gov%2F2020%2FAbout-Healthy-People&usg=AOvVaw3FKJzrtNf8irO277e3zjdc

Kadir, A., Shenoda, S., & Goldhagen, J. (2019). Effects of armed conflict on child health and development: a systematic review. PloS one, 14(1), e0210071. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210071

Kusimo, O. C. (2019). Findings from a Windshield Survey Conducted in an Internally Displaced Community in Nigeria. Health, 11(1), 50-56. https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2019.111006

Sentinel City (n.d.) Sentinel City Simulation, Healthcare Learning Innovations. Retrieved on 10th August 10, 2021, from https://learn.americansentinel.edu/mod/lti/view.php?id=452319