Schizophrenia Discussion Paper
Schizophrenia is one of the mental problems that may interfere with the therapeutic relationship. The problem lies with determining the constitutional symptoms and determining the most appropriate approach to handle the patients. Therefore, establishing the right symptoms of the disease help in determining the appropriate treatment of the patient. Schizophrenia interferes with how people feel and perceive the environment (Kane et al.,2019). The key symptom of schizophrenia is psychosis which is characterized by delusions and hallucinations.
The prevalence of schizophrenia is one percent. The incidence of schizophrenia is more common in developing countries than in the developed countries (Kane et al.,2019). It is approximated that the risk of developing schizophrenia is four in every one thousand people. This study explains schizophrenia to help a psychiatric mental health nurse to be able to identify the problem and act in the most appropriate ways to treat or manage the condition.
Epidemiological, schizophrenia is common among people in their later teens to mid-thirties. The peak of onset of men is lower than that of women. The initial expression of the condition is commonly associated with more aggressive symptoms than the ones people are likely to express ten years after the expression of the condition (McCutcheon, Marques & Howes, 2020). Therefore, one can get over the condition over time as they learn to accept that they may differ from the rest of the populations.
Schizophrenia is more common in black than in white, and people tend to adopt the positive symptoms as they grow older. In the determination of the condition, many risk factors are important to capture. Among them include the history of pregnancy, medications, and history of substance abuse. The information is important in ruling out other psychotic problems that may present within similar symptoms.
Schizophrenic symptoms are classified as mood symptoms, positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive symptoms. The people who have schizophrenia in childhood are usually introverts and may take a longer time to have developmental milestones. They may also have a higher incidence of bed wetting than the rest of the population (McCutcheon, Marques & Howes, 2020). They have a noticeable personality change and have a decreased social relationship at a younger age. The positive symptoms include hallucinations, disorganized speech, and delusions.
The negative symptoms include poverty of speech, decreased drive and interests, and having tremendous inertia. People with cognitive symptoms tend to have problems with their attention and memories. They cannot determine the problems that an individual is likely to suffer from at a time. The people may also have problems with the mood whereby they either become cheerful or sad in an almost impossible way to predict. They have unique interests that tend to drive their moods which is different from the thoughts and behaviors of normal humans. However, the symptoms are not entirely constitutional, which needs one to have the right knowledge concerning the best mental examination approaches to ensure that they are always normal to ensure that they can act most of the time correctly.
A patient who has schizophrenia is likely to report a history of substance abuse and having the condition running in the family. Therefore, it is always necessary to consider having a good history of evaluating the condition of the patient before deciding the right approach towards the management of their conditions. Alcohol abuse is most common with schizophrenia as it helps in masking the symptoms of the disorder. Male patients have a higher incidence of drug abuse-induced schizophrenia than women. Men are also involved in crime and violence than men. Men also have higher chances of being less compliant to medications which can significantly influence the outcomes of treatments. The consumption of cannabis is associated with adverse outcomes as they synergy the expression of the symptoms.
Patients with schizophrenia also express symptoms of depression. The depression may exist independently or as a result of treatment. Therefore, a nurse should ensure that they do sufficient follow up of patients with schizophrenia to ensure that their conditions are always taken care of most of the times. The patients may also express anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders due to delusions and violence.
Knowing the key symptoms provide a pathway towards determining the appropriate treatment of the schizophrenic. The underlying measure of the management is ensuring a good follow-up plan to ensure that the other conditions that come up as a result of medications are also treated (Sadock, Sadock, & Ruiz, 2014). People the drug-induced psychosis also need a good follow-up plan to help in the reduction of chances of relapse to the previous conditions that are relatively diminishing to the overall individual performances.
The best approach to the care of people with schizophrenia may need a multidisciplinary team that will determine the progression of the disease and the appropriate management (Sadock, Sadock, & Ruiz, 2014). Therefore, nurses who want to help patients with schizophrenia should be ready to work in teams. The nurse roles are important since they tend to spend more time with the patient than any other professional, which can help in contributing to history and alteration of management.
References for Schizophrenia Discussion Paper
Kane, J. M., Agid, O., Baldwin, M. L., Howes, O., Lindenmayer, J. P., Marder, S., … & Correll, C. U. (2019). Clinical guidance on the identification and management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 80(2), 0-0. https://doi.org/10.4088/jcp.18com12123
McCutcheon, R. A., Marques, T. R., & Howes, O. D. (2020). Schizophrenia—an overview. JAMA psychiatry, 77(2), 201-210.
Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan and Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Co. ISBN 9781609139711