Different Levels of Translational Research Paper
Translational Research in Nursing
Discussion 1: Part I
Different Levels of Translational Research
The objective of translational research is to turn scientific discoveries from the laboratory into treatment solutions and approaches that have direct benefit to human health. Translational research seeks to produce practical solutions from scientific discoveries. The biggest advantage of translational research is that it supports the best medical/clinical practices while incorporating the needs of the general public. The focus of this paper is to examine the different levels of translational research, in addition to analyzing a translational study.
This level of research tests findings of basic research to find their clinical effect and their applicability to human health. The objective of T1 research is to develop treatments and interventions. Some of the common approaches used in T1 research include animal studies, pre-clinical studies, healthy human volunteers, and phase 1 clinical trials (Woolf, 2018). Phase 1 clinical trial is used in testing a new biomedical intervention using a small group of 20 to 80 people. At T1 research level, basic research is translated into research that uses humans. Besides, T1 acts as the link between research and a clinical setting.
T2 research is used to test new solutions or interventions in controlled environments as a basis of finding their clinical application. The findings obtained from T2 research often yield knowledge on the efficacy of an intervention. The efficacy of an intervention is used to form basis upon which clinical application and evidence-based guidelines is based (Parija, 2020). Some of the approaches in T2 translational research include; phase 2 clinical trials, and phase 3 clinical trials. Phase 2 clinical trials looks at the behavioral or biomedical intervention usually in a large group of people. The aim here is to determine the efficacy of the results/findings. Phase 3 translational research is a clinical study/intervention that involve several hundred human subjects. Here, an experimental study is compared with a standard or control intervention.
This type of research looks at how guidelines or recommendations can be turned into practice. T3 translational research shows how interventions work in a real clinical setting. Common approaches in T3 translational research include; phase 4 clinical trials.
T4 research looks at the intervention methods and factors that impact on the health of populations. Approaches under T4 translational research are social determinants of health studies, and population-level outcome studies.
Discussion 1 Part II:
Difference between Translational Research and Evidence-based Practice
Evidence-based Practice-EBP is applying evidence into clinical practice with the objective of improving patient outcomes. EBP is about using the most effective care/interventions using the best available evidence. It is a problem-solving approach used in clinical practice that uses the best evidence obtained from high-ranking studies.
Conversely, translational research is the study of scientific discoveries with a view of transforming them into practical treatments and interventions to improve the health of populations. Translational research seeks to produce meaningful and applicable interventions/findings that have a positive impact on human health.
Discussion 2: Analysis of the Chosen Article
From the chosen article, the identified population health problem is diabetes mellitus. The article Hemoglobin A1c-levels and subsequent risk of depression in individuals with and without diabetes by Wium-Andersen et al. (2021) examines the long-term effect of glycemic load as a potential cause of depression in individuals afflicted with diabetes mellitus. This research focuses on why diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for depression.
The type of Research Used in the article and the Rational why it is the best
In the journal article, T1 phase III clinical trial was used. Here, an experimental study is compared with a standard or control intervention. The study population was composed on two cohorts. The first cohort was the cohort without diabetes while the second cohort included patients with either diabetes type 1 or 2 (Wium-Anderson et al., 2021). Thus, the study used healthy human beings without diabetes and an observational group with diabetes to find out the effect of glycemic load as a potential cause of depression. One group acted as the experimental group while the other group was used as the control group. The intervention group is the group that receives the intervention being tested.
The reason why phase III clinical trial was the best for this research is because the researchers had the opportunity to observe any changes in the intervention and control groups. Phase 3 translational research is a clinical study/intervention that involve several hundred human subjects. Here, an experimental study is compared with a standard or control intervention (Young, 2017). The differences in the outcomes between the two groups is used to assess and determine the level of the effectiveness of the intervention. Thus, from the outcome of the study, the researchers are able to analyze the extent to which the level of HbA1c impacts on humans.
References for Different Levels of Translational Research Paper
Parija, S. C. (2020). Translational research in Nursing… Vistas Galore. Pondicherry Journal of Nursing, 13(3), 49–50. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10084-12165
Wium-Andersen, I. K., Hengeveld, E. M., Rungby, J., Jørgensen, M. B., Osler, M., & Wium-Andersen, M. K. (2021). Hemoglobin A1c-levels and subsequent risk of depression in individuals with and without diabetes. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 107946. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2021.107946
Woolf, S. H. (2018). The meaning of translational research and why it matters. JAMA, 299(2). https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2007.26
Young, L. (2017, August 29). Importance of phase iii clinical trials. Pancreatic Cancer Action Network. Retrieved 6th August 2021 From https://www.pancan.org/research/strategic-research-program/viewpoints/importance-of-phase-iii-clinical-trials/.