Community Teaching Plan – Teaching Experience Paper
Alcoholism and the subsequent alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are among the most profound health priorities because they result in multiple adverse health effects. According to a 2018 report by the World Health Organization (WHO), alcohol abuse and related effects cause approximately 3 million deaths by 2016, representing about 5.3% of all deaths (WHO, 2018). More importantly, the World Health Organization (WHO) presents such statistics alarming because alcohol-related mortalities in 2016 surpassed hypertension and diabetes. Apart from contributing to high mortality rates across groups, alcohol abuse inflicts other health effects, including cognitive impairments, injuries, and disabilities. Undoubtedly, these considerations of alcoholism remain a concern in the mainstream health sectors because WHO predicts that alcohol abuse trends will continue upsurging in the next ten years due to inadequate social, health, and legal frameworks to alleviate its prevalence (Glantz et al., 2020). One of the most fundamental takeaways in the fight against alcoholism is that communities and individuals are unaware of the potential effects of alcohol abuse due to limited health promotion activities and inadequate infrastructure to promote community-based teaching and learning programs. As a result, choosing this topic for the community teaching Plan was to help alcoholics abandon this maladaptive behavior and capitalize on the determination to quit alcoholism by creating awareness about potential adverse effects of alcohol abuse to operate as the eye-opener for abandoning unhealthy habits.
The overall efforts to ensure a comprehensive teaching plan relied on several topics, including readiness for learning evaluation, theoretical application, review of the healthy people 2020’s goal in alcoholism, a nursing diagnosis, teacher evaluation, addressing teaching/learning barriers, and developing an effective communication plan. Arguably, the community participants required effective measures of delivering the core concepts. Therefore, the volunteers and other healthcare education providers utilized PowerPoint presentations as the primary strategy of educating the participants on various issues surrounding alcoholism. The PowerPoints accommodated visible charts, synthesized statistics, and other visual aids to help all the participants obtain insights about the topic. The team of teachers and volunteers perceived the need to enhance the overall teaching and learning process. As a result, they issued PowerPoint handouts to help the learners review fundamental lessons and retrieve statistics or other relevant information about the topic.
Although the delivery strategies were relatively effective in promoting the overall teaching/learning endeavors, proper preparedness was a prerequisite for a successful community teaching program. In this sense, the program facilitators embarked on prior measures of establishing individual willingness to participate in the program and efforts to harness emotional preparedness and reception toward the program. The overall interventions of ensuring emotional readiness relied on proper selection criteria to select an alcoholic-support group in recovery, containing individuals with an internal drive to help stop alcohol consumption. Also, the team applied this strategy in testing the experimental readiness, where the program facilitators evaluated the individual willingness to learn about the benefits of quitting alcohol consumption. The teachers and volunteers capitalized on personal determination to ‘shine a light on the adverse effects of alcohol on the participants’ health as the primary motivator of transforming their behaviors and boosting their resolve to stop alcohol consumption.
Apart from embracing various strategies to test and capitalize on the individual willingness to learn about the essentiality of quitting alcohol consumption, the program facilitators adopted creative ways of engaging the participants and increasing their participation in the program. In this sense, they allowed the participants to taste non-alcoholic drinks like blended juice and beverages to appreciate their taste and refresh ahead of learning schedules. Also, participants engaged in workouts, swimming, hiking, and dancing to enhance their social capacities while helping them recover from alcohol consumption. Arguably, these activities helped participants and program facilitators develop meaningful relationships and avert ideologies of reverting to alcoholism.
Health People’s 2020 Goal on Alcoholism
The community teaching plan utilized the inspiration from Healthy People 2020 (HP 2020) objectives regarding the Alcoholism topic. For instance, the Healthy People 2020’s goal on Substance Abuse and Health topic aim to “reduce substance abuse to protect the health, safety, and quality of life for all” (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020 Community Teaching Plan – Teaching Experience Paper). Arguably, this goal validates the importance of various interventions to prevent preventable diseases, injuries, disabilities, and premature deaths. Notably, the teaching plan focused on the first goal of HP 2020 that advocates for various interventions to prevent alcohol-related mortalities and health problems by preventing cardiovascular disorders posed by alcohol consumption. In an attempt to satisfy the provisions by the Healthy People 2020, the teaching program facilitators operated on the following practical objectives:
- The alcoholics will learn about the adverse effects of alcohol on their health to understand the importance of quitting alcohol consumption.
- Participants will identify another substitute healthy recreational drinks to replace alcohol.
- The alcoholics will engage in other recreational activities to help them recover from alcoholism and prevent them from indulging in the habit.
Theoretical Framework for the Teaching Plan
Inevitably, the teaching program for helping alcoholics quit alcohol consumption required theoretical backings and conceptual framework to inspire actions and help facilitators understand the learning potential for the participants. Therefore, the primary theories that influenced the learning/teaching interventions were the cognitive theory and some aspects of the operant theory. The cognitive theory (Social Cognitive Theory) played a significant role in explaining the motivations and reasons behind the alcoholism habit. For instance, the theories have effectively explained how people acquire knowledge from social environments by evaluating drivers’ roles, cues, responses, and rewards in motivating individuals to embrace particular habits.
Alcoholism is one of the most persistent habits throughout human civilization history that requires behavioral enhancement and motivation from social interactions. One of the fundamental premises of the cognitive theory is that learning is a social process that entails the acquisition of knowledge and skills through “enactive mastery of experience.” In this sense, observational learning is a crucial strategy for enhancing behavior and actions regarding habits (Middleton et al., 2018). Another vital principle is self-efficacy, where individuals believe that a task or a goal is achievable within particular settings. Self-efficacy influences how people utilize their expertise, skills, and experiences to modify behavior or transform actions regarding various social stimuli.
Arguably, the notable premises of the cognitive theory played significant roles in helping the community teaching program facilitators to develop effective therapies for the alcoholics to help them quit maladaptive behaviors. For instance, the cognitive theory helped teachers and program volunteers to understand the role of self-efficacy, behavioral drivers, and related outcome expectancies in facilitating alcohol consumption for alcoholics. The subsequent interventions of alleviating the effects of alcoholism for the participants relied on behavioral interventions and social skill training. In this sense, the behavioral interventions targeted to address cues, motivators, and factors leading to addiction or substance abuse, including cravings, skill deficits, and anxiety. Also, social skill training interventions effectively reduced the urge for alcohol for participants who struggled with social pressures. According to, assertiveness training involves vital steps such as minimal effective response and escalation.
In various instances where a minimal response such as informing friends about individual willingness to quit alcohol is ineffective in bringing changes, it is essential to escalating to a stronger response such as threat and warning to avoid peer pressure. According to Sudhir (2018), role-playing, behavioral rehearsals, and modeling by embracing alternative activities are essential in teaching alcoholics about assertiveness and enhancing overall social skill training. Undoubtedly, these activities combined with other interventions to promote the program effectiveness and enhance participants’ response to the program.
Apart from the cognitive theory, the teaching/learning program facilitators applied various aspects of the operant conditioning theory. According to Overskeid (2018 Community Teaching Plan – Teaching Experience Paper), the operant conditioning theory defines human behavior as continuously shaped and maintained by establishing balances between consequences. In this sense, the general assumption is that people are often aware of consequences emanating from actions and behavior. Therefore, they transform their perceptions and actions by embracing behaviors that have minimal consequences. As a result, drug abuse, addiction, and use are crucial topics that rely on the operant conditioning perspective. For instance, individuals decide to engage in alcoholism because of multiple factors, including managing stress, maintain group affiliations, and cope with social pressures. In such instances, the consequences of alcohol consumption are plausible and favorable, motivating people to engage in alcohol consumption.
Since the operant conditioning theory is fundamental in explaining the motivation and drivers behind alcoholism, it is essential to develop countermeasures to reinforce healthy habits. According to Miguel et al. (2015), the community reinforcement approach is vital in helping alcoholics abandon alcohol consumption. The authors favor behavioral counseling, recreational alternatives, and client-centered education interventions as crucial strategies to reinforce positive mindsets and help addicted alcoholics quit alcoholism. Arguably, these considerations inspired various effects for community teaching/learning program facilitators. For example, allowing participants to select alternative non-alcoholic beverages such as blended juice and recruiting them to recreational activities helped them to appreciate alternatives to alcoholism. Also, providing insights into the adverse effects of alcoholism on participants’ health harnessed their understanding of the potential consequences of unhealthy habits, enabling them to transform and reinforce healthy behaviors.
Community Response and Process Evaluation
Although the delivery strategies for the community teaching/learning program satisfied the strategic plan, community response and process evaluation interventions were crucial in determining whether the program realized the desired outcomes. In this sense, the team adopted measures to investigate whether they realized the strategic objective. Firstly, the initial responses and reactions of the participants provided insights on whether the program is meaningful to them or not. The team tested the ability of each participant to select a non-alcoholic drink and their skills to make one according to the class lessons. Secondly, the team evaluated the number of lapse cases among the participants to establish whether the alternative interventions are meaningful and if any of the participants required clinical referrals or diagnosis.
Apart from testing the immediate skill acquisition and lapse cases, the team agreed to apply Kirkpatrick’s evaluation model to establish the program’s long-term effects. Kirkpatrick’s model assesses the effectiveness of training programs at four levels: trainees’ responses about the training experience, learning outcomes regarding skill acquisition, attitudes, knowledge, behavioral changes, and the long-term results of training interventions (Heydari et al., 2019 Community Teaching Plan – Teaching Experience Paper). While considering Kirkpatrick’s evaluation framework, the team decided to conduct follow-up activities after three months to evaluate the long-term impacts of the teaching exercise on the participants’ behaviors and actions regarding alcoholism.
Nursing Diagnosis and Therapeutic Communication Plan
The community teaching/learning program derived inspiration from the clinical diagnosis that alcoholics are susceptible to cardiovascular diseases like hypertension and heart failure. Therefore, educating them about healthy lifestyles and habits would help them quit alcohol consumption and prevent various health risks (Díaz-Gutiérrez et al., 2018). The most profound strategy of educating participants about the adverse effects of alcoholism was by embracing a therapeutic communication plan that compromised various approaches such as providing presentation handouts, developing visible charts, diagrams, and including a motivational speaker to inspire the participants about the recovery journey. Also, the program facilitators adopted several non-verbal communication strategies to complement verbal approaches and ensure learning process continuity.
Barriers and Areas of Strengths
Based on the overall perceptions and responses from the participants, it is possible to argue that the teaching/learning program was successful. However, the team experienced challenges due to the existing social perceptions and stigma against alcoholics. According to Zwick et al. (2020 ), societies view alcoholics as lunatics, idiots, retards, and insane asylums. Such offensive terms affect how individuals engage in social interactions and their productivity. Depending on social perceptions and how alcoholics perceive stigma, healthcare professionals face barriers in addressing negative perceptions and stereotypes facing alcohol addicts. For the community teaching/learning program facilitators, the primary intervention to address stigma was to capitalize on participants’ desire to quit alcoholism. Therefore, participants felt safe, confident, and focused on sharing their experiences and transforming their behaviors.
Alcoholism is one of the global health concerns that result in high mortality rates, injuries, cognitive impairments, and behavioral alterations. Although alcoholism results in diverse effects on Individual health, communities lack awareness and sufficient education to understand the negative consequences of alcohol consumption. Therefore, choosing a community teaching/learning program on this topic was to help alcoholics quit this habit and embrace healthy lifestyles. Undoubtedly, the program derived inspiration from clinical diagnosis for alcoholism risks, the Healthy People’s goal of preventing mortalities, and the desire to complement the global fight against alcoholism. As a result, the facilitating team embraced behavioral reinforcement mechanisms, recreational activities, and a therapeutic communication plan to achieve the program’s strategic objectives.
Community Teaching Plan – Teaching Experience Paper References
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Healthy People 2020 law and health policy project: Legal and policy resources related to substance abuse (pp. 1-4). CDC. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/phlp/docs/hp2020-substanceabuse.pdf
Díaz-Gutiérrez, J., Ruiz-Canela, M., Gea, A., Fernández-Montero, A., & Martínez-González, M. (2018). Association between a healthy lifestyle score and the risk of cardiovascular disease in the SUN cohort. Revista Española De Cardiología (English Edition), 71(12), 1001-1009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rec.2017.10.038
Glantz, M., Bharat, C., Degenhardt, L., Sampson, N., Scott, K., & Lim, C. et al. (2020). The epidemiology of alcohol use disorders cross-nationally: Findings from the World Mental Health Surveys. Addictive Behaviors, 102, 106128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.106128
Heydari, M., Taghva, F., Amini, M., & Delavari, S. (2019). Using Kirkpatrick’s model to measure the effect of new teaching and learning methods workshop for health care staff. BMC Research Notes, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4421-y
Middleton, L., Hall, H., & Raeside, R. (2018). Applications and applicability of Social Cognitive Theory in information science research. Journal Of Librarianship and Information Science, 51(4), 927-937. https://doi.org/10.1177/0961000618769985
Miguel, A., Yamauchi, R., Simões, V., da Silva, C., & Laranjeira, R. (2015). From theory to treatment: Understanding Addiction from an operant behavioral perspective. Journal Of Modern Education Review, 5(8), 778-787. https://doi.org/10.15341/jmer(2155-7993)/08.05.2015/006