Subject Matter Experts and Data Collection Sample Paper
Data collection is an essential part of any research project. Therefore, before carrying out any research, it is important to choose a data collection method that is compatible with your research. This involves analyzing the pros and cons of the data collection, their reliability, if they will include all the essential data that you may need in your research, etc. This is necessary to ensure that the study objectives are achieved and hypotheses tested. By obtaining reliable data, meaningful conclusions can be made from the data and be used in evidence-based practice (Dean, 2017 Subject Matter Experts and Data Collection Sample Paper). For my research on “Prevalence and Precipitating Factors of Stress, Depression, and Anxiety Among Nurses in Texas State”, I decided to use a simple questionnaire as a data collection tool.
A Simple Questionnaire
The purpose of the questionnaire used to gather data in this study is to describe the prevalence and determinants of stress, depression, and anxiety among practicing nurses across Texas State. This will be done in part by online self-administered questions and in part through interviewing and surveying. The sample questionnaire will be able to collect both quantitative and qualitative data, such as gender and age, as well as their perceptions of their stress levels. The questionnaire is completed by dragging down on the gaps at the conclusion of each question, ensuring a straightforward, precise, and gradable response.
- Gender … Male Female
- How old are you?*
- Relationship status* … Single In a relationship Married
- Where do you stay?
- How long have you been practicing nursing?
- When did you graduate from undergraduate nursing*
- Are you comfortable keeping up with nursing practicing?* … Yes No
8(a) Are you satisfied with your performance as a practicing nurse?* … Yes I am satisfied No, my performance bothers me
8(b) Have you ever been suspended or placed on probation by the Nursing Board of Texas?* … Yes No
- Has a member of your family been clinically diagnosed with depression/ a mental illness?* … Yes No
- Are there counselling services at your neighborhood or facility?* … Yes No
Perceived Stress Scale
The questions on this scale ask about your feelings and thoughts during the last month. In each case, you will be asked to indicate how often you feel or think a certain way. You will do this by ticking in the appropriate column, 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 to indicate the degree of your feelings. Although some of the questions are similar, there are differences between them, and you should treat each one as a separate question. The best approach is to answer fairly quickly. That is, don’t try to count the number of times you felt a particular way; rather, indicate the alternative that seems like a reasonable estimate.
- You have been upset because of something that happened unexpectedly.* … 0 Never 1 Almost never 2 Sometimes 3 Fairly often 4 Very often
- How often have you felt that you were unable to control the important things in your life?* … 0 Never 1 Almost never 2 Sometimes 3 Fairly often 4 Very often
- How often have you felt nervous or stressed?* … 0 Never 1 Almost never 2 Sometimes 3 Fairly often 4 Very often
- How often have you felt confident about your ability to handle your personal problems?* … 0 Never 1 Almost never 2 Sometimes 3 Fairly often 4 Very often
- How often have you felt that things were going your way?* … 0 Never 1 Almost never 2 Sometimes 3 Fairly often 4 Very often
- How often have you found that you could not cope with all the things you had to do?* … 0 Never 1 Almost never 2 Sometimes 3 Fairly often 4 Very often
- How often have you been able to control irritations in your life?* … 0 Never 1 Almost never 2 Sometimes 3 Fairly often 4 Very often
- How often have you felt like you were on top of things?* … 0 Never 1 Almost never 2 Sometimes 3 Fairly often 4 Very often
- How often have you been angered because of things that happened that were outside of your control?* … 0 Never 1 Almost never 2 Sometimes 3 Fairly often 4 Very often
- How often have you felt difficulties were piling up so high that you could not overcome them** … 0 Never 1 Almost never 2 Sometimes 3 Fairly often 4 Very often
Overview of the Data Collection Tool
The main purpose of using this data collection technique is to collect demographic data on nurses in Texas state and be able to determine the extent of their stress. This involves the use of the perceived stress scale (PSS), an objective assessment tool that measures how stressful situations or events in one’s life are perceived. The PSS-14, which consists of 14 items with responses ranging from 0 to 4 for each item based on its incidence in the month prior to the survey, is used to assess “perceived stress” (Mondo et al., 2021). Previous research has found that it has an internal consistency of 0.85 (Cronbach’s coefficient) and test-retest reliability of 0.85 after a brief retest interval (a few days). The PSS-14 can have a score range of 0 to 56, with 28 being the typical operating cut-off value (Mondo et al., 2021 Subject Matter Experts and Data Collection Sample Paper). In addition to gathering primary data, the kit can be used to aggregate data in order to draw general conclusions about stressful situations or events in a given population sample.
Critical Review of the Tool
Three distinct interviews with senior public health nurses were conducted to assess the tool set. The senior nurses were chosen as the appropriate group of subject matter experts because of their experience in the nursing field and with initiatives focused on boosting nurses’ health. The results of the three interviews were then integrated to create a summary of the common themes. Recommendations on the use of the tool for the collection of data for that particular study were also noted.
The general presentation of the kit is simple, with a general description that confirms clear goals and provides users with a broad picture of the data acquired and its prospects. The kit was also found to contain data that was in line with the general objectives of the study, which is to determine the prevalence and precipitating factors of stress, depression, and anxiety among practicing nurses in Texas State. This is especially crucial because a data collection kit must provide objective data, which increases the tool’s reliability and rationality. Additionally, the data to be used in filling out the questionnaire could be easily obtained by the respondents with minimal problems. This indicates that the data can be translated into evidence-based practice (Dean, 2017).
The kit was deemed to be precise and accurate in terms of data collection precision due to the fact that the questions enquired specific aspects of signs and symptoms associated with stress, demonstrating that it could create data for the intended uses. The nature of the questions in the kit reliably points to the accuracy of the tool in determining societal determinants of stress. In addition, the scoring system for perceived stress in the second part of the questionnaire allows for inclusiveness of nurses with different levels of stress.
The inclusion of demographic data enables in-depth analysis of the various aspects of stress. Age, gender, and relationship status could be used to analyze if there is any causal relationship between the age of nurses, their gender, and predisposition to stress. The history of anxiety or mental illness in the family of an individual can be evaluated to see if it has any impact on the nurse’s predisposition or level of stress. Additionally, the feelings of the nurses towards their practice, the period of practice, and the progress they have been experiencing, such as probation or suspension, can be analyzed to establish if they relate to the state and levels of stress.
Despite the assessment of the data collection kit as being easy to fill out and use, it was found to be insensitive to chronic stress experienced by nurses since the perceived stress scale focused only on the feelings and experiences of the nurses for the last one month (Mondo et al., 2021). Therefore, chronic stress, which could be masked by the adaptation to stress, may be missed in the process of assessing the nurses using that scale. Consequently, the questionnaire cannot be used to assess depression. Assessment of chronic stress and anxiety is important in determining the productivity of any given employee, including nurses (Ridley et al., 2020). In coming up with evidence-based practices to improve the productivity of nurses by managing their depression and anxiety, some with chronic stress and anxiety may be missed out in the process of evaluation using this data collection kit.
Furthermore, the simple questionnaire was also found to lack critical aspects of stress such as the state of the relationship between the respondent nurse and their friends and families, as well as their dependency on them. The questionnaire, and especially the perceived stress scale method of assessing stress, was found to be insensitive for assessing stress resulting from events occurring in the lives of close friends and family. The questionnaire, therefore, does not fully assess the wide aspects of family and friends as possible causes of stress, making it difficult to establish the precipitating factors of stress as required by the objectives.
According to subject matter experts, this method of data collection also showed some aspects of unreliability and invalidity. The objective of the study is to study the prevalence and precipitating factors of stress, depression, and anxiety among practicing nurses in Texas State. The only objective assessed by the data collection method used in this study is the prevalence and precipitating factor of stress. The larger chunk of the objective of the study, including the prevalence and precipitating factors of depression and anxiety, is not assessed by the perceived stress scale. These gaps left by the study may result in omission of other underlying issues indicated by the objectives, leading to misleading aspects of the prevalence of depression and anxiety amongst nurses (Dean, 2017).
The simple questionnaire also omitted ethical considerations, which are an important part of gathering first-hand data from a sample population. Participants must consent to the collection of such data, as well as a concise and straightforward description of how the information will be utilized for their benefit and the benefit of the public (Smyth, 2018 Subject Matter Experts and Data Collection Sample Paper). This, according to subject matter experts, is critical in order to improve the tool’s reliability and accuracy. It was also discovered that the tool lacked information on how to utilize it and what results to expect. Including this information may aid in ensuring that the tool is used for the intended purpose (Smyth, 2018).
According to subject matter experts, to ensure that the data collection addresses the general objectives fully, it will require the addition of other sections to accommodate depression and anxiety. This will therefore require a longer and more complex questionnaire. The recommended tool for the collection of data on depression included the BDI-II questionnaire. For anxiety, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was recommended. The STAI is one of the most well-known anxiety scales, having been used in numerous studies in a variety of sectors and a range of patients, including military personnel, students, and adults in the community (Knowles & Olatunji, 2020).
Subject matter experts recommended the use of test-retest procedures or piloting to improve the validity and reliability of the simple questionnaire as a method of data collection. The primary objective of piloting is to eliminate ambiguous items, determine if there are any issues with administering the instruments, test the data collection instruments, determine the feasibility of the study, and correct any logical and procedural discrepancies. It also allowed for preliminary data analysis. The questionnaire will be piloted in two hospitals across the state to assist in validating it and determine its correctness, clarity, and usefulness. This will also aid in the improvement of question items and the identification of the types of probes required, as well as the verification of how far the measuring devices are indicative of the complete content of the concept under study
In addition to adding the missing content, the subject matter experts suggested that the questionnaire be edited properly. This will be necessary for generating unique data, which is crucial for enhancing decision-making efficiency and establishing intervention measures. In addition, giving more information about the essential information will aid in modifying the tool’s general structure. This will aid in redefining and determining the degree to which respondents agree or disagree with a statement about a certain issue. This will aid in the more precise display and comprehension of the data gathered.
To summarize, data gathering techniques are an important aspect of research investigations, particularly when the findings are intended to be implemented into actual practices. Data collection for studies that will lead to new ways that will transform how society solves problems must therefore be credible and valid. This aids in the reduction of errors or difficulties when implementing the results into practice. Only when the data collection methods are focused on obtaining data that is related to the study objectives can the study objectives be achieved.
Subject Matter Experts and Data Collection Sample Paper References
Dean, J. H. (2017). The importance of follow-up in the teaching, implementing and sustaining of evidence-based practice. https://sigma.nursingrepository.org/handle/10755/622126
Knowles, K. A., & Olatunji, B. O. (2020). Specificity of trait anxiety in anxiety and depression: Meta-analysis of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Clinical Psychology Review, 82(101928), 101928. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2020.101928
Mondo, M., Sechi, C., & Cabras, C. (2021). Psychometric evaluation of three versions of the Italian Perceived Stress Scale. Current Psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.), 40(4), 1884–1892. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-019-0132-8
Ridley, M., Rao, G., Schilbach, F., & Patel, V. (2020). Poverty, depression, and anxiety: Causal evidence and mechanisms. Science (New York, N.Y.), 370(6522), eaay0214. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aay0214
Smyth, J. D. (2018). Internet survey methods: A review of strengths, weaknesses, and innovations. In Social and Behavioral Research and the Internet (pp. 11–44). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203844922-2