Pathophysiology of Spinal Trauma Paper

Pathophysiology of Spinal Trauma Paper

Question 1: Pathophysiology of spinal trauma

Spinal trauma may occur due to external or internal factors. Several pathophysiologic events such as compression, concussion and other secondary mechanisms such as biochemical and electrolyte may also contribute to its occurence. These biochemical changes are facilitated by oxygen free radicles alteration in electrolytes and neurotransmitters affecting cell membrane permeability which causes ischemia and eventually necrosis of white and gray matter (Balain & Lal, 2017). External causes of spinal trauma may include accidents that directly cause damage to spinal tissue hence necrosis.

Pathophysiology of Spinal Trauma Paper

Question 2: Complications of spinal trauma

Neurogenic shock; occurs as a result of bradycardia and severe hypotension in cervical injuries hence severe decrease in blood pressure due to spinal injury.

Abnormal temperature control; usually occurs in patients with high thoracic and cervical injuries. It is mainly due to reduced sympathetic input and decreased sensory input in thermoregulating centers.

Sweat secretion; Sweat gland are usually innervated by sympathetic nerves from Th1-Th5.Damage to the spine affects the nerves hence changes in sweating such as hyperhidrosis may occur.

Thromboembolism; spinal trauma may facilitate coagulation disorders and venous stasis because of altered haemostasias and reduced fibrinolytic activity

Question 3: Pathophysiology and recent drug discovery for Alzheimer’s disease.

Deposition of beta proteins and neurofibrillary tangles result in loss of neurons and synapses this eventually causes gross atrophy of several parts of the brain especially the mesial temporal lobe. Recent drug discoveries have led to production of anti-amyloid monoclonal antibodies that are specific for beta amyloid proteins involved in pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (Deok Ji et al., 2016). The drugs approval is based on its potential to decrease deposition of beta amyloid proteins in brains of patients.

Question 4: Fibromyalgia

A theory that blames process known as central sensitization. In this, the CNS causes pain. For instance, if one suffers a traumatic injury due to a whiplash, they may have fibromyalgia since the CNS overreacts to the pain. However, this doesn’t take place right away, but delays. This is the reason patients have pain in the entire body. Research has shown that people who have fibromyalgia have lower nerve fiber density than those who don’t have fibromyalgia (Bruusgaard et al., 2015). Immune system association with fibromyalgia has led to discovery of drugs that can be used to manage this condition.

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