Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

Introduction

Clinical practice guidelines have numerous advantages for practicing nurses. Practice guidelines offer nurses the opportunity to focus on the provision of quality healthcare. Besides, practice guidelines promote rational use of resources by clinical staff. Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines-CPG are unique statements created to help nursing practitioners to make effective decisions concerning the healthcare services provided to patients.

Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

Today, EBP is a critical part of nursing practice because it ensures the use of up-to-date information to inform treatment decisions and quality within healthcare settings. CPGS not only reduce costs to patients but also impact patient outcomes (Brook, R., & Rajagopalan, 2018 Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper). This paper is a critique of the journal article Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association obtained from clinical practice guidelines and the National Guideline Clearinghouse. Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

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Purpose of Study

The purpose of this study was to create a clinical guideline for the assessment, control, and monitoring of factors that contribute to the severity of High blood pressure. The study also aimed at developing the appropriate pharmacologic treatment plan for the disease. Being the most common respiratory disease in the US, High blood pressure remains a dangerous chronic inflammatory disease that affects millions of people across America and Canada. This study contains a comprehensive description of what high blood pressure is, its causes, and the best pharmacology treatment for the disease. Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

Study Design

The study was conducted in Canada based on the Canadian Community Health Survey that revealed that close to 10% of Canadians suffer from some form of high blood pressure. The study was conducted among young and old Canadians to find out the prevalence of the disease in these demographic groups. The epidemiological evidence from the study showed that young people below 19 years and old people above 60 years are the most affected by this respiratory problem. Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

The Description of the study

The study was conducted in Canada to evaluate the number of deaths caused by high blood pressure annually. Up to 10% of the Canadian population is affected by High blood pressure. A recent cohort study done in Ontario revealed that the prevalence of High blood pressure has increased to 55% from a low of 8.5% in 2003. (Koppikar, et al, 2021 Evidence-Based Practice – Clinical Guidelines Paper). High blood pressure is a respiratory problem that affects the airways causing difficulty in breathing. T helper cells are associated with High blood pressure and affect immune responses. There are many triggers for High blood pressure such as dust, dander from animals, cockroach residue, pollen from plants, and cold air in some people.

Research Questions

The authors pose the question, “do the prenatal risk factors increase the chance of High blood pressure attack in children”. To answer this question, the research identifies up to 5 clinical High blood pressure phenotypes that differ distinctly from a lung infection. There is the non-atopic phenotype that represents the groups of children that experience wheezing episodes. Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

Sampling Size/Technique

In a research study, a population is defined as a set of elements (People or objects) that have similar characteristics as quantified by a researcher. On the other hand, the word sample in research refers to selected objects or elements chosen to participate in a study. This study sought to capture the experiences of older men and young children working in Ontario Canada. The study was conducted among 150 old adults and children in Ontario and the West South-Central region of the United States of America. This region is 443,501 square miles in size with a combined population of about forty-five million inhabitants (Koppikar, et al., 2021 Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper).

Owing to its huge size, it would be impossible to interview all the women in the oil and gas industry in the entire West South-Central States. A total of 150 old people and children were randomly selected to participate in the study by way of an interview to collect and capture their lived and personal experiences with High blood pressure. One the inclusion criteria for young people were a mandatory age of 19 years at the time of study. For older people, the inclusion criterion was being 60 years of old and above.

Critique of Review of Literature

According to the American College of Cardiology-ACC and American Heart Association-AHA., the best methods for determining the impact of Evidence-based practice Clinical guidelines is through scientific measurement of patient outcomes. The authors assert that the implementation of EBPCG can only work when it is practiced by nurses and patients. Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

The impact factor, in this case, is measured based on the number of citations present in the research or paper. In this work, such metrics provide a reliable and effective method of measuring the impact that clinical guidelines have on scientific research on evidence-based practice. However, the AHA and ACC point out that the growth of analytical tools used in harvesting information from online databases has helped the research on Evidence-based practice Clinical guidelines to take a multi-disciplinary approach such as sociological approach, scientific approach, structural approach, and technological approach.

The two institutions continue to assert that “most importantly, discoveries in the basic science of AD would be entirely impotent without close collaborations with investigators in translational, clinical, and public health disciplines,” (American College of Cardiology-ACC and American Heart Association, 2017). This statement is conclusive and takes into consideration the work of individual researchers as critical additions to research on EVPCG. Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

Discussion of Methodology

According to Creswell and Creswell (2018 Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper), the best research methods for qualitative studies include observations, interviews, and review of existing literature. Accordingly, this research used a combination of the three methods mentioned above to come up with comprehensive and valid research. Interviews by far are the most used method to capture data in qualitative studies. This study on clinical practice guidelines entailed the researcher going to the field to conduct face to face interviews with the selected participants. Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

Another source of data that this research relied on is observation. Observation is important to this research as it accorded the researcher the opportunity to observe first-hand the subjects as well as their natural environment, which in this case was their workplaces. The observation was done via watching and taking down notes and through video recording of the interviews as well as the environment of the participants to get a feel of the environment.

The observation was important to this study because it helped to reduce any biases that may have been formed before interaction with the participants. Apart from interviews and observation, a review of existing literature played a pivotal role in shaping the direction of this research. A review of the literature gave the researcher a deep understanding of the phenomena as well as the much-needed background information for the study. Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

In this article, the American College of Cardiology-ACC and American Heart Association asserts that the continued use of the evolved format to present guidelines contributes a chunk of knowledge to EBPCG. The authors provided that each modular presentation is effectively represented through a combination of tools such as tables and flow diagrams where appropriate. To become more valid, the presentation contains a table of associated recommendations, a synopsis of the problem, and recommendations that are specific to the case study. Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

Data Analysis

Data collected from the field was entered into Microsoft excel sheet for tabulation and analysis. The review of existing documents was chosen as the most appropriate for this study because of the numerous benefits they presented to the researcher. The researchers used data entered into Microsoft excel to search for any variances between old and young participants in the study. To ease the work of the researchers, excel pivot table were used because of the large amounts of data. Excel pivot table allowed the researchers to simply drag and drop large amounts of information instead of manually typing all the data. (Reboussin et al., 2018 Evidence-Based Practice – Clinical Guidelines Paper).

These sources also allowed the researcher to narrow down the research to be more specific which in turn helped the researcher to decide the direction of the research and to make amendments as necessary before final data could be gathered for analysis. Additionally, these methods were chosen over other methods because they come with a high degree of reliability. They are deemed reliable because the researcher relies on what he has observed and recorded. Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

The calculation of descriptive statistics was done from a pool of co-publications which also contained the total number of publications every year. The data obtained from the co-publication networks were then fed to a linear regression line of 0.9567 being the value of R2. Parameters within a certain ADC network were then linked to other researchers or investigators who published a book together with another investigator (Quirt et al., 2018 Evidence-Based Practice – Clinical Guidelines Paper). The researchers then observed the percentage of all nodes connected to the largest network or cluster which according to them had recorded growth compared to individual researchers. Based on this metric, Quart and his teammates concluded that the level of connectivity interaction between ADC co-authors publications has tremendously increased.

For this study, participants were put in two randomized offline parallel groups using a computer-generated list which uses blocking as well as stratification. Each group was given ten-minute training on how to operate the website. Every week, each participant read through an entire session before printing out a questionnaire to indicate how satisfied they were with both the training and the website. The study followed the stress and coping theory by Lazarus and Folkman as well Bandura’s self-efficacy model to ascertain the stress levels, self-efficacy, burden, and health issues (Cristancho-Lacroix, et al, 2015 Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper).

The findings did not reveal any significant difference in PSS-14 (self-perceived stress). This pilot research aimed to evaluate what impact the Diapason program would have on caregivers as far as helping them to deal with stress is concerned. The program was meant to offer skills, information, training, and a forum for caregivers to find a valuable platform to help them reduce their stress and burden. Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

Intention-to-treat analysis was the method used to analyze all available data. Calculations for means and percentages or descriptive data were also analyzed for each practicing nurses as the characteristics found in PWADS. Besides, the authors relied heavily on Mann-Whitney tests (popularly called t-tests) as well as Spearman correlations to identify the relationship between the variables. Face-to-face interventions allow researchers to control the level of bias which is something the authors did not achieve in their online-based intervention (Whelton et al., 2015 Evidence-Based Practice – Clinical Guidelines Paper). Furthermore, due to the heterogeneous nature of caregivers, future studies must limit the criteria of inclusion.

Researchers Findings

The researchers concluded that as the cases of High blood pressure rises in America, the need to use EBP clinical guidelines is increasingly becoming important to combat the disease. This notwithstanding, the researchers believe that this research has been largely successful in providing an alternative method for providing information and education to caregivers of people suffering from high blood pressure, especially the formal caregivers.

The researchers believe that they have successfully demonstrated that online facilitation of caregivers can help them to acquire functionalities such as personalization, flexibility, socialization, and dynamism which are all important qualities in a caregiver given the stress levels. Furthermore, the researchers conclude that there was a very limited acceptance of the online Diapason program by caregivers which is a pointer to the fact that the program needs to be rolled out in a structural manner that allows the caregivers to interact with other professionals as well as the broader online community. Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

Variable Analysis

Caring for people using Evidence-based practice Clinical guidelines -EVPCG is cost-effective and increases patient outcomes. Over five million Americans and thirty-five million people worldwide suffer from High blood pressure meaning that these people require some form of care whether formally or informally. Leveraging evidence-based practice Clinical guidelines -EVPCG in offering care assistance to individuals suffering from hypertension is the best way to combat High blood pressure since many informal caregivers lack the basic information on how to take care of patients. Dealing with High blood pressure takes two approaches; formal and informal care. The study analyzes the efficacy and acceptability of web-based educational programs intended for informal caregivers to enhance the quality of care provided to people with high blood pressure. Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

According to data provided by the World Health Organization, the world has seen substantial growth in the number of High blood pressure incidences which presents problems to nations. All of these people require round-the-clock care just to get by. By 2017, AHA indicated that over 12 million caregivers gave more than 17.5 billion hours of care (unpaid) which was equivalent to USD 216 billion. Presently, most people with High blood pressure receive home care largely from their relatives, an occurrence that translates to increased stress levels among the caregivers. Based on this fact, researchers strive to find out if a web-based intervention program for caregivers is just as good as face-to-face interventions. Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

Conclusion

Evidence-Based Practice-Clinical Guidelines is a critical tool that informs clinical practice, especially regarding patient assessment, treatment plan design, and discharge conditions. First, the approach is essential in impacting the quality of healthcare offered to patients. Through EBP critical guidelines, patients enjoy numerous advantages among them being benefiting from enhanced decision-making by nurses. Conversely, nurses also gain immensely from leveraging EBP critical guidelines as it enables them to offer the best care quality, avoid committing clinical errors and achieve enhanced patient outcomes overall. Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper

Evidence-Based Practice – Clinical Guidelines Paper References

Brook, R., & Rajagopalan, S. (2018). 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Journal Of The American Society Of Hypertension12(3), 238. doi: 10.1016/j.jash.2018.01.004

Reboussin, D., Allen, N., Griswold, M., Guallar, E., Hong, Y., & Lackland, D. et al. (2018). Systematic Review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults. Journal Of The American College Of Cardiology71(19), 2176-2198. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.11.004

Quirt, J., Hildebrand, K., Mazza, J., Noya, F., & Kim, H. (2018). High blood pressure. Allergy, High blood pressure & Clinical Immunology14(S2). https://doi.org/10.1016%2FB978-0-12-820658-4.00001-7

Whelton, P., Carey, R., & Aronow, W. (2018). ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association. Task Force on Clinical Practice. KIDNEYS7(1), 68-74. doi: 10.22141/2307-1257.7.1.2018.122220. Evidence-Based Practice Clinical Guidelines Paper