Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper
Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper
Opiate Use/Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper
Adolescent opioid users
For many years, opioids have been the number one choice for the treatment of chronic pain. Doctors are prescribing different types of opioids ranging from mild to intense to their patients as pain relievers. However, using opioids has become a significant public health concern stemming from its overuse by patients. Brook and Rajagopalan (2018) estimate that up to 20 million Americans by 2015 qualified to be under opioid medication due to acute or chronic pain they were experiencing.
The number has since multiplied due to the increase in the number of people seeking treatment for chronic pain, which has a positive correlation with the number of people with Opioid Use Disorder (OUD). This research will also look at the methods available for treating opioid addiction, such as using Buprenorphine-Naloxone and alternatives such as methadone. Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper
The use of opiate abuse among adolescents has become a big concern in public health due to the rising cases of misuse of the drug. Just like there is an increase in the number of young people using opioids, there is also a corresponding increase in opiate overdose. Routine use of opiate use among adolescents account for 90% of overdose deaths in America (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021 Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper).
This means that up to 29% of adolescents on opioids misuse the drugs while another 12% of youths on opioids have OUD (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021 Opiate Use/Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper). Reducing cases of opiate misuse and overdose among the youths require better approaches that are non-addictive, effective, and safe.
The use of opiates among adolescents continue to plague millions of youths in America. According to American government, the balance between pain management using opioids and its misuse is already a thin line. This leads to many questions regarding the suitability of opioids in the management of chronic pain. However, the research question chosen for this research is: Is there a safer, effective, and nonaddictive way of treating patients with Opioid Use Disorder? As of 2015, up to 20 million Americans were thought to be candidates for substance use disorder, particularly, opioids. Furthermore, Quirt et al. (2018) established that misuse of opioids cost America losses of $504 billion in 2017. The research question will be helpful in analyzing if it is prudent to continue using opioids for pain management or whether to adopt other safer and effective methods. Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper
Pharmacotherapies And Behavioral Interventions
The chosen course of action is a treatment for the patient. This is because the patient not only suffers from chronic pain but is also addicted to opioids. As mentioned before, the misuse of opioids accounts for over 70% of fatal cases of overdose (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021 Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper). The question, therefore, is about treating patients who are already addicted to the drug and making them clean. One way that can be used to treat patients with OUD and to reduce their dependence on opioids is by using Buprenorphine-Naloxone treatment. This treatment will help the patient to reduce his dependence on opioids. Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper
Buprenorphine-Naloxone treatment is a relatively new medicine that still must be researched fully. The medication has some side effects such as difficulty in breathing, addiction, and death in case of overdose-which is rare due to its high tolerant ceiling effect. The other alternative that can be used on patients with opioid use disorder is methadone-another effective drug for dealing with opioid addiction. Methadone has two distinct qualities which makes it the best replacement for Buprenorphine-Naloxone (Quirt et al, 2018). One, it works as a pain reliever and two, it does not create the high that people get when using other drugs. Additionally, methadone can help in eliminating withdrawal symptoms, making it a good treatment for opioid addiction.
Using Buprenorphine-Naloxone is associated with positive outcomes because the drug reduces cravings for opioids as well as lessening the impact of withdrawal symptoms. Being a partial agonist derived from opioids, Buprenorphine-Naloxone is much safer than most full agonist drugs used in the treatment of opioid addiction. Even at higher doses, the effect of the drug is still quite mild which makes it difficult to abuse. The side-effects of Buprenorphine-Naloxone are also mild and usually include anxiety, drowsiness, headache, and nausea. The ceiling effect of Buprenorphine also adds to its safety in case of overdose. This characteristic of the drug makes it have a low morbidity rate. Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper
American Community Health Survey that revealed that close to 10% of Americans suffer from some form of opiate abuse. The study was conducted among young and old Americans to find out the prevalence of the disease in these demographic groups. The epidemiological evidence from the study showed that young people below 19 years and old people above 60 years are the most affected by this respiratory problem. Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper
Studies conducted in America to evaluate the number of deaths caused by opiate abuse annually show grim picture of the situation. According to Koppikar et al. (2021), up to 10% of the American population is affected by Opiate abuse. A recent cohort study done in Ontario revealed that the prevalence of Opiate abuse has increased to 55% from a low of 8.5% in 2003 (Koppikar, et al, 2021). Opiate abuse is a respiratory problem that affects the airways causing difficulty in breathing. T helper cells are associated with Opiate abuse and affect immune responses. There are many triggers for Opiate abuse such as dust, dander from animals, cockroach residue, pollen from plants, and cold air in some people.
The major question that the government grapples with concerning opiate use in adolescents is “do the prenatal risk factors increase the chance of Opiate abuse in young people”? To answer this question, the research identifies up to 5 clinical Opiate abuse phenotypes that differ distinctly from a lung infection. There is the non-atopic phenotype that represents the groups of children that experience wheezing episodes. Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper
In any research study, a population is defined as a set of elements (People or objects) that have similar characteristics as quantified by a researcher. On the other hand, the word sample in research refers to selected objects or elements chosen to participate in a study. This study sought to capture the experiences of older men and young children working in Ontario America. Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper
According to the American College of Cardiology-ACC and American Heart Association-AHA., the best methods for determining the impact of Evidence-based practice Clinical guidelines is through scientific measurement of patient outcomes. The authors assert that the implementation of EBPCG can only work when it is practiced by nurses and patients (Wheton et al., 2017 Opiate Use/Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper). The impact factor, in this case, is measured based on the number of citations present in the research or paper.
In this work, such metrics provide a reliable and effective method of measuring the impact that clinical guidelines have on scientific research on evidence-based practice. However, the AHA and ACC point out that the growth of analytical tools used in harvesting information from online databases has helped the research on Evidence-based practice Clinical guidelines to take a multi-disciplinary approach such as sociological approach, scientific approach, structural approach, and technological approach (Whelton, et al., 2017 Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper).
The two institutions continue to assert that “most importantly, discoveries in the basic science of AD would be entirely impotent without close collaborations with investigators in translational, clinical, and public health disciplines,” (American College of Cardiovascular, 2021). This statement is conclusive and takes into consideration the work of individual researchers as critical additions to research on EVPCG.
Influence The Prevalence of Opioid Abuse and Misuse
The use/misuse of opioids among young people elicits mixed reactions among millions of people who oppose its continued use. One of the most advanced theories that have been used to explain as well as provide an effective framework for the treatment of opioid addiction is the Brain Theory of Social Attachment-BOTSA. This theory provides that managing physical and emotional pain in opioid addicts can be effectively managed by managing social connections, and subjective experiences of opioid addicts.
According to Inagaki (2018 Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper), BOTSA theory holds that strong social connections or attachments can lead to reduced opioid activity (p. 2). This means that patients or people under opioid treatment should be encouraged to be always in the presence of friends or loved ones rather than live in separation. Staying in isolation increases the urge in addicts to use more opioids as a way of responding to social stressors. Thus, Brain Theory of Social Attachment asserts that social connection is related to wellbeing.
The Brain Theory of Social Attachment provides a clear framework for the treatment of opioid addiction. In this case, the issue of stopping opioid addiction is dependent on the allegiances or strong bonds formed by addicts (Inagaki, 2017, p. 4). However, this process would require an effective grieving and or mourning process such as losing a loved one. Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper
The social connection process is considered therapeutic and can help in the healing process of opioid addicts. However, as Reboussin et al., (2018) observe, this theory works on the assumption that for every addict, there will be a sufficient grieving process that many never occur (p. 149). On the other hand, even without the grieving process, the strong connections and bonds formed by addicts and their loved ones may be sufficient to control their opioid intake. Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper
Managing patients with acute or chronic pain poses significant challenges in nursing. This is further compounded by the fact that over half of all patients under opioid medication are addicted to the drug (Volkow & McLellan, 2017). In 2017, the US government declared opioid addiction a national emergency. Further research revealed that 20 in 100,000 people died from an opiate misuse (Quirt et al., 2017 Opiate Use/Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper).
The significance of the problem is that using opioids in pain management has created hundreds of thousands of opioid-dependent people and a significant number of people who die from an overdose. To date, using opioids remains the best way to treat chronic pain. According to research, opioids can reduce chronic pain by up to 30%, which makes the best chronic pain reliever available (Quirt et al., 2017). However, the primary issue is the thin balance between managing pain using opioids and opioid addiction. The implication has been the increase in apprehension concerning the use of opioids in the treatment of enduring agony. Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper
Dependency on opioids has resulted in a far much bigger problem in which millions of people have become addicted to the drug, while many more die due to overdose. The objective of this paper is to determine approaches to eliminate or lessen the addiction to opioids in patients suffering from Opioid Use Disorder. Opioids have been critical in pain relief, but some individuals have been misusing them to the point that questioning their usability has become imperative. Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper
The balance between pain management using opioids and its misuse is already a thin line. This research will, therefore, work on the hypothesis that there are better alternatives to treating OUD for the millions of patients who are addicted to opioids. The theory thus states: Buprenorphine-Naloxone can be used effectively to treat opioid addiction. Buprenorphine-Naloxone treatment has the capability to cut off the patient’s addiction to opioids. In this case, the success of managing the opioids epidemic in America depends on the success of the treatment method chosen. Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper
Opiate Use/Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper References
American College of Cardiovascular. (2021). Diabetes and Cardiometabolic Disease – American College of Cardiology. American College of Cardiology. Retrieved 24 June 2021, from https://www.acc.org/clinical-topics/diabetes-and-cardiometabolic-disease.
Brook, R., & Rajagopalan, S. (2018). ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of Opiate abuse in Adults. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Journal Of The American Society Of Hypertension, 12(3), 238. doi: 10.1016/j.jash.2018.01.004. Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). Understanding the Epidemic | Drug Overdose | CDC Injury Center. Retrieved 24 June 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/epidemic/index.html
Inagaki, T. (2017). Opioids and Social Connection, The journal of psychological sciences, 1–18. doi: 10.31234/osf.io/27cnv
Reboussin, D. M., Allen, N. B., Griswold, M. E., Guallar, E., Hong, Y., Lackland, D. T., Miller, E., 3rd, Polonsky, T., Thompson-Paul, A. M., & Vupputuri, S. (2018). Systematic Review for the 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 71(19), 2176–2198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2017.11.004
Quirt, J., Hildebrand, K., Mazza, J., Noya, F., & Kim, H. (2018). Opiate abuse. Allergy, Opiate Abuse & Clinical Immunology, 14(S2). doi: 10.1186/s13223-018-0279-0. Opiate Use Abuse in Adolescents Sample Paper
Volkow, N. D., & McLellan, A. T. (2017). Opioid abuse in chronic pain—misconceptions and mitigation strategies. New England Journal of Medicine, 374(13), 1253-1263. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1507771
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