Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline

Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline

Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline

Brown Versus Board of Education: Outline

  1. Thesis and Introduction
  2. Statement

Despite significant improvements and developments in the American education system since the Brown V Board of Education verdict 60 years ago, America is still struggling to guarantee educational equality to all races.

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  1. Overview and Background

Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline

In 1954, judges deciding the Brown V. Board of Education case concluded that the unequal and separate education system for different races in the United States breached the American constitution (Schmidt, 2021). The American constitution held that education is a basic right of every American irrespective of their race or background. However, segregation was widespread in America-especially in the South. Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline

The segregation led to racial inequality where African-Americans were denied the right to pursue education as their white counterparts. Besides, the education offered to African-Americans was poor in quality compared to the education provided to white Americans.

African-Americans were not allowed to study in the same classrooms as their white counterparts. They had separate classrooms which were in bad condition coupled with poor facilities and school equipment leading to poor quality education compared to what the white schools provided. These are the factors that led to the Brown V Board of Education case in 1950s. Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline

  1. The Federalist Papers 
  2. Summary and Explanation of Hamilton, Madison, Jay. The Federalist Papers (1787)

            In 1787, a series of 85 essays urging the American government to ratify the proposed U.S. constitution were published on the Independent Journal newspaper. The initial 77 essays which included the Federalist 10 by James Madison were released in a book form in 1787. The Federalist papers were a collection essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay.

            In September 27, 1787, the constitutional convention handed over to the confederation congress the proposed constitution. The congress sent the constitution to all confederate States for ratification. However, before adoption of the new constitution by Confederate States, several articles appeared in the New York Press brutally attacking and criticizing the constitution (Cramer et al., 2018). These and more articles known as the Anti-Federalist papers increased their attacks on the proposed constitution with the view to incite the public against it. Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline

            In response to the increased attack of the proposed new constitution by Anti-Federalist papers, Alexander Hamilton wrote an article in defense of the new constitution. In his article, he sought to explain to the people of York about the advantages of the proposed new constitution (Kleidosty, J., & Xidias, 2017 Brown v. Board of Education Assignment Outline). To encounter the increased attack and pressure from the Anti-Federalist papers, Hamilton recruited collaborators James Madison and John Jay to work on a series of articles in support of the new proposed constitution. The work of Hamilton and his collaborators led to the publication of the Federalist Papers in 1787 and 1788.

Anti-Federalist Papers

1.Details of Sub point

            The opposition against the new proposed constitution had reached alarming heights in New York. The Anti-Federalists consistently published numerous articles criticizing the constitution (Henry, 2020). They argued that the implementation of the new proposed constitution would make citizens to lose the numerous liberties they gained after the American Revolution. Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline

2.Countering the Anti-Federalist Papers

Alexander Hamilton was a statesman and a New York lawyer and had served as a delegate to the constitutional convention. He was angered by the Anti-Federalist papers and decided to publish a series of articles urging New Yorkers and the rest of the states to ignore the Anti-Federalist papers.

III. The Brown V. Board of Education

i.Jim Crow Laws

In 1896, the Supreme Court in America through the Plessy V. Fergusson case upheld the racial segregation of Black people after ruling that segregation in public facilities were legal. This ruling barred African Americans from sharing the same facilities as white Americans (Stern, 2021 Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline). This meant that African Americans could not share the same buses, schools, and other public facilities as their white counterparts. These laws became popularly known as the Jim Crow Laws that created separation between white and black Americans.

  1. The Verdict: Brown V. Board of Education

            In 1954, the newly sworn-in United States Chief Justice helped in achieving a unanimous verdict from the Supreme Court asserting that the “the separate but equal’’ laws established in the Plessy V. Fergusson was illegal. The Supreme Court Ruled that Brown and fellow plaintiffs were denied the right to equal protection as guaranteed in the 14th Amendment. Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline

  1. Implementation of Supreme Court Ruling

            Even though the plaintiffs won in the Brown V. Board of Education case, the implementation of the integration was another issue altogether. To begin with, the Supreme Court did not specify how the integration would take place. In essence, the ruling in the Brown V. Board of Education case did not stop desegregation but it played a pivotal role in the rise of African Americans against Jim Crow Laws. This ruling marked the beginning of an intense campaign and advocacy by African American community to resist oppressive Jim Crow laws. One of the examples of defiance of Jim Crow Laws after the Brown V. Board of Education ruling is the case of Rosa Park who a year after the ruling refused to give up her bus seat to a white passenger in Montgomery, Alabama. Her case sparked serious boycotts, demonstrations, and sit-ins that eventually led to the abolition of Jim Crow laws.

Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline References

Cramer, E., Little, M. E., & McHatton, P. A. (2018). Equity, equality, and standardization: Expanding the conversations. Education and Urban Society, 50(5), 483-501. Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline

Henry, P. (2020). The Anti-Federalist Papers. Courier Dover Publications.

Schmidt, C. W. (2021). Brown v. Board of Education. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History.

Kleidosty, J., & Xidias, J. (2017). An Analysis of Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay’s The Federalist Papers. Macat Library.

Stern, S. (2021). “Separate, Therefore Equal”: American Spatial Segregation from Jim Crow to Kiryas Joel. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, 7(1), 67-90. https://doi.org/10.7758/RSF.2021.7.1.05

The Brown v. Board of Education Instructions

Cramer, E., Little, M. E., & McHatton, P. A. (2018). Equity, equality, and standardization: Expanding the conversations. Education and Urban Society, 50(5), 483-501. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0013124517713249

The article argues that sixty years after the Brown v. Board of Education verdict, America is still struggling to guarantee educational equality for all scholars. Further, equality, including standardization and accountability associations, has been unsuccessful at closing opportunity gaps for marginalized and vulnerable communities. Scholars with disabilities from linguistically and culturally diverse upbringings have experienced the most challenges.

Inequities in achievement, access, and results for scholars from linguistically and culturally diverse upbringings endure, with poverty, insufficient funding, overcrowding, and white supremacy is the leading factors. The authors conclude that reforms should be implemented to expand educational conversations for deeper examination, categorizing the consequences for continued, all-inclusive alternatives. Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline

Knoester, M., & Au, W. (2017). Standardized testing and school segregation: like tinder for fire?. Race Ethnicity and Education, 20(1), 1-14: https://doi.org/10.1080/13613324.2015.1121474

Based on the editorial, Brown v. Board of Education had negative repercussions, where white resistance frequently hindered implicitly integrated schooling. The authors assert that the Brown V. Board of Education ruling was specifically damaging to black communities by firing African American teachers, shuttering black schools, and unequal treatment of African American scholars in multiracial institutions. Brown V. Board of Education might have put an end to state-authorized school seclusion but failed to eliminate white supremacy.

The black teachers and scholars were discriminated against and treated unfairly after the Brown decision, and black schooling institutions were closed. The article concludes that meaningful racial integration in schools is still challenging, where separate educational institutions are fundamentally unequal due to white supremacy and inequality. White persons and societies historically and currently monopolize educational, social, political, and economic power. Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline

Motycka, A. E. (2017). White Southerners Respond to Brown v. Board of Education: Why Crisis Erupted When Little Rock, Arkansas, Desegregated Central High School. https://digitalcommons.bowdoin.edu/honorsprojects/82

The author argues that Brown V. Board of Education uncovered the southern segregationist opinions and views in the 1950s. However, Brown V. Board of Education could not overturn a racial order reinforced by social, political, and economic power. The article argues that segregated societies will endure subsisting due to inequality and white supremacy in the United States of America. The article highlights that racial segregation is rampant in schools, promoting inequality.

Motycka aims to expose and comprehend the southern segregationist response to Brown v. Board of education to determine why and how the association started leading up to current history. The article concludes that the Brown V. Board of Education\’s legacies display an unceasing battle to desegregate schools. Americans should protect the educational structure from promoting equal education and battle inequality. Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline

Onwuachi-Willig, A. (2019). Reconceptualizing the harms of discrimination: How Brown v. Board of Education helped to further white supremacy. Va. L. Rev., 105, 343. https://www.virginialawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/OnwuachiWillig_Book.pdf

The article highlights that the Brown V. Board of Education failed to categorize and counterattack the complete damages of discrimination, thus furthering white supremacy instead of overpowering it. According to Onwuachi-Willig, Brown V. Board of Education\’s failure to discourse the wide range of damages of racism has led to two particular problems in the society. The first problem is a sustained and incorrect sense of white superiority that strengthens and supports the organizations and structures that work to spread racial inequality.

The second problem is racism desensitizes Whites, where numerous of them fail to notice how racial discrimination, especially towards African Americans, also harms them. The author argues that both problems result in more significant societal harm, with a partial means for eliminating racial inequality. The article concludes that it is essential to examine the Brown V. Board of Education to understand how the gaps in that verdict resulted in contemporary racial realism, where background and history are overlooked, and equality remains evasive. Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline

Yearby, R. (2018). Racial disparities in health status and access to healthcare: the continuation of inequality in the United States due to structural racism. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 77(3-4), 1113-1152. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajes.12230

Professor Yearby asserts that the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education verdict concluded that unequal and separate education dishonored and breached the constitution since separate is intrinsically unequal. Numerous individuals trusted that the ruling and other reforms such as the Voting Rights Act of 1965 would end discrimination against the black community in America. According to the editorial, disparities still exist because the laws and ruling did not modify the structures of America. Notably, structural racism hinders blacks from acquiring equal access to healthcare, income, employment, and wealth.

The author highpoints how structural racism endures and sources racial disparities between Caucasians and African Americans. The article concludes that adopting reforms and laws such as a novel anti-discrimination decree to cope with intentional racial prejudice towards African Americans in healthcare access is essential. This would end structural racism in employment, healthcare, income and end racial inequalities. Brown v. Board of Education Assignment Outline

Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline INSTRUCTIONS

Your outline must be submitted in a formal outline format as shown below. The outline should demonstrate enough detail to make it clear that you have considered the organization of your presentation, including the research required for your topic, and the planned sections for your research paper. At the end of your outline, please provide a listing of the sources which you have already identified for use in creating your research paper. Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline

Outline Format

I. Thesis & Introduction

A. Statement

B. Overview/Background

1. Details of Subpoint

2. More details of the Subpoint

II. Main Point

A. Summary and explanation of the meaning and significance of the clause given by any one of the following early writings on the Constitution:

1. Hamilton, Madison, Jay. The Federalist Papers (https://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/fed.asp.), 1788

2. William Rawle, A View of the Constitution (http://constitution.org/2-Authors/wr/rawle-00.htm), 1829.

3. Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution (https://lonang.com/library/reference/story-commentaries-us-constitution/), 1833.

B. Subpoint

1. Details of Subpoint

2. More details of the Subpoint

III. Main Point

A. Summary of one Supreme Court case that addresses your clause. Be sure to quote and explain the most important passages of the court cases directly in your paper. Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline

1. Details of Subpoint

2. More details of the Subpoint

B. Subpoint

1. Details of Subpoint

2. More details of the Subpoint

IV. Main Point

A. Use of at least three scholarly peer-reviewed journal articles on your chosen clause. Make sure you cite properly.

1. Details of Subpoint

2. More details of the Subpoint

B. Subpoint

1. Details of Subpoint

2. More details of the Subpoint

V. Conclusion & Future Research

A. Closing

1. Clear and concise summation of how student’s research supports thesis.

2. More details of the Subpoint

B. Future Research

1. Brief discussion of possible future research on topic.

2. More details of the Subpoint

VI. APA Style in-text citations and references where appropriate

*Be sure to insert additional subpoints and details where necessary to meet the content requirements.
Brown v Board of Education Assignment Outline

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