Type 2 Diabetes Literature Review Example

Type 2 Diabetes Literature Review Example

Type 2 Diabetes Literature Review Example

Review of Literature

According to Wood & O’Neill (2012), type 2 diabetes mellitus causes adverse effects on skeletal muscles and bones. In particular, it makes the skeletal muscle resistant to insulin and has impaired glycogen synthesis. The other changes include damaged mitochondrial functions and an increase in the accumulation of lipids. Eventually, the advanced glycation end products of collagen lipid accumulation and the osteoblasts’ impaired activity compromise the bones’ quality. Non-pharmacological type 2 diabetes management methods comprise aerobic exercise (training large muscle groups over extended periods) and resistance exercise (moving loads using resistance from weights and machines). However, the physiological changes that occur during aging imply that the two types of exercises’ impacts might decline as an individual grows older.

Type 2 Diabetes Literature Review Example

According to Flint & Tadi (2020), the increasing proportion of senescent cells do not function in line with normal physiology are the leading cause of aging. At the cellular level, proliferation occurs to the point of total cessation. The fundamental changes include protein production and apoptotic resistance increase, coupled w alterations of cellular biochemical activity. From the youthful stage to middle adulthood, the number of senescent cells in the body tends to be low and manageable. However, with time, the threshold is crossed, and more senescent cells accumulate in the body, leading to a gradual loss of the regenerative and bio-productive mechanisms. Since aging influences the human cell physiology, the impacts of exercise is likely to reduce as an individual grows older. Type 2 Diabetes Literature Review Example

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A broad body of literature indicates that exercise effectiveness in the management of type 2 diabetes can vary based on type and protocol. A meta-analysis by Wood & O’Neill (2012 Type 2 Diabetes Literature Review Example) indicates that insulin sensitivity increases when older men a resistance training program to older men twice per week for 16 weeks. On the other hand, a 2-hour 10week resistance training program performed three times per week improves HbA1c and fasting insulin but does not affect glucose or insulin.

Another study by Refaye & Aziz (2017) revealed that both resistance and aerobic exercise decrease the fasting as 2hr- postprandial plasm glucose levels among women with gestational diabetes Mellitus. However, the impact was higher for the resistance training group than the aerobic one. Wood & O’Neill (2012) uses meta-analysis of the studies conducted previously on the topic, while Refaye& Aziz (2017) was an actual randomized controlled trial. Hence, the results of both studies are justifiable and informative to the current research. The latter adds information to the existing research by revealing the benefits of the two types of exercise on gestational diabetes patients. Type 2 Diabetes Literature Review Example

Nery et al. (2017) compared the differences between the resistance and aerobic exercise in the absence of insulin therapy on clinical and metabolically outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus. The scholars searched and evaluated various clinical trial findings from 336 people aged between 48 and 58 from relevant online databases. Each of the subjects had undergone varying protocols of 30 to 60 hours, between three and five times per week, for 22 weeks.

Despite the low quality of evidence, the scholars established that resistance exercise has higher effectiveness in promoting maximal oxygen consumption in protocols longer than 12 weeks among type 2 diabetes patients. However, the control of glycaemic and lipid levels was indifferent between the two levels of exercise. This research gives critical insight into diabetes management by informing on how the type, frequency, and duration can affect clinical outcomes in this topic. Type 2 Diabetes Literature Review Example

Another study by Yang et al. (2014) investigated aerobic and resistance exercise’s effectiveness and safety of type 2 diabetes management. The key parameters were glycaemic control, blood pressure, anthropometric measures, fitness health status, and adverse events. They conducted a systematic search on randomized controlled trials, various databases, including CINAHL, EMBASE, CENTRAL, PubMed, and SPORTdiscus. Randomized controlled trials on type 2 diabetes patients aged 18 and above conducted for a minimum of 8 weeks were considered for the analysis. Twelve trials with 626 subjects met the inclusion criteria.

The researchers established that aerobic exercise has a higher glycosylated haemoglobin reduction than resistance exercise, but a sensitivity analysis revealed that the difference is insignificant. The researchers also found no differences in cardiovascular risk markers and safety. The sources of data and methods used to collect, analyse, and authenticate data in this research are valid. Hence its findings justifiable. Since the scholars followed the recommended procedure for this type of research, it is evident that this is a relevant and informative piece of literature for the topic. Type 2 Diabetes Literature Review Example

Pan et al. (2018) conducted a meta-analysis to establish the comparative impact of different training exercises on cardiovascular risk factors, glycaemic control, and weight loss among type2 diabetes patients. They searched for randomized controlled trials on five electronic databases. Thirty-seven studies comprising of 2208 type 2 diabetes patients were selected for the study. The scholars found out that both aerobic and resistance exercises reduce HbA1c significantly. Supervised aerobic exercise has a higher positive impact than no exercise in fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and low-density lipoprotein glycerol.

By contrast, supervised resistance exercise improved systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol. Supervised aerobic exercise was superior to unsupervised resistance and aerobic exercise in improving weight loss and HbA1c. Combing resistance with aerobic exercise produced better results in HbA1c improvement than using either of the training alone. However, using either of the two exercises alone or combining them could not better manage weight loss. Ideally, these scholars’ methods and procedures to collect and analyse data are credible; hence, their results are acceptable and clinically relevant. More importantly, their findings are informative and relevant for this research because they reveal the impacts of using either or both of the exercise protocols on diabetes mellitus patients’ health outcomes. Type 2 Diabetes Literature Review Example

Notably, the available clinical trials have been conducted to examine the impact of exercise on the management of type 2 diabetes and its associated comorbidities (Wood & O’Neill (2012 Type 2 Diabetes Literature Review Example), However, most of the studies focus on aerobic exercises. For the few that assess resistance exercises, the emphasis is on the skeletal muscle dysfunction’s functional and physiological responses. The physiological process changes as a result of aging can affect the outcome of an exercise regimen on the management of diabetes mellitus.

Rebelo-Marques et al. (2018 Type 2 Diabetes Literature Review Example) allege that aging is characterized by losing physiological integrity. It is associated with both cellular and molecular damage. According to the programmed aging theory, human cells undergo structural and functional capacity during the aging process. The error-based theory of aging asserts that it is the cumulative damage of the living cells that lead s to intrinsic aging. Aging leads to a systematic alteration of the cellular biochemical activities. Thus, while the benefits of resistance exercise might not differ from those of aerobic exercise, the outcomes can emerge due to ageing.

Type 2 Diabetes Literature Review Example References

El Refaye, G. E., & Aziz, G. F. A. (2017). Comparative study of circuit resistance training and aerobic training on glycemic control of gestational diabetes mellitus. Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy22(2), 89.

Flint B, Tadi P. Physiology, Aging. [Updated 2020 Mar 21]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK556106/

Nery, C., De Moraes, S. R. A., Novaes, K. A., Bezerra, M. A., Silveira, P. V. D. C., & Lemos, A. (2017). Effectiveness of resistance exercise compared to aerobic exercise without insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy21(6), 400-415.

Pan, B., Ge, L., Xun, Y. Q., Chen, Y. J., Gao, C. Y., Han, X., … & Tian, J. H. (2018). Exercise training modalities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity15(1), 72.

Rebelo-Marques, A., De Sousa Lages, A., Andrade, R., Ribeiro, C. F., Mota-Pinto, A., Carrilho, F., & Espregueira-Mendes, J. (2018). Aging hallmarks: the benefits of physical exercise. Frontiers in Endocrinology9, 258.

Wood, R. J., & O’Neill, E. C. (2012). Resistance training in type II diabetes mellitus: impact on areas of metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle and potential impact on bone. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism2012. Type 2 Diabetes Literature Review Example

Yang, Z., Scott, C. A., Mao, C., Tang, J., & Farmer, A. J. (2014). Resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine44(4), 487-499.