Week 4 Discussion Psychopathology and Psychiatric Disorders

Week 4 Discussion Psychopathology and Psychiatric Disorders

Week 4 Discussion Psychopathology and Psychiatric Disorders

Psychopathology and Psychiatric Disorders

Mental disorders can be visualized as a group of assorted syndromes with a multifactorial etiology. At the present, a vast majority of these disorders remain idiopathic with only a few postulated mechanisms. Previous studies despite focusing much on the genetic aspect of mental illness even to the point of mapping the whole human genome, research the exact cause remains ongoing. This has shifted efforts towards the role of environment in the development of mental illness. In this paper, the role of environmental factors particularly childhood trauma in development of mental disorders will be explored. Week 4 Discussion Psychopathology and Psychiatric Disorders

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Impact Of Childhood Trauma on The Development of Mental Disorders

Exposure to traumatic events during early stages of life can have significant impact on the subsequent health of an individual. Adverse life events in childhood include physical injury, sexual abuse, witnessing violence and threatened harm (McLaughlin et al., 2020 Week 4 Discussion: Psychopathology and Psychiatric Disorders) and these have been related to development of schizophrenia, post traumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, bipolar disorder, depression and anxiety disorders among other mental illnesses.

Devi et al. (2019) while comparing a sample of 354 outpatients with various mental disorders to 100 community controls established that most of the outpatients with mood disorders had experienced physical neglect or emotional abuse in early childhood. Additionally, Copeland et al. (2018) in his study of 1420 children found a cumulative trauma prevalence of 70.5% by age 16 years with witnessing of traumatic event being the most common traumatic event at 24.1% with subsequent adult psychiatric disorders and functional limitations. Furthermore, exposure to traumatic events during childhood my cause damage to structural and functional areas in the brain such as amygdala and hippocampus (McLaughlin et al., 2020) resulting in mood disorders and depression. Week 4 Discussion Psychopathology and Psychiatric Disorders

McLaughlin et al. (2020) further while reviewing the relationship between schizophrenia and childhood trauma, concluded that neurobiological effects of trauma on epigenetic mechanisms and endocrine system, and damage to the parietal cortex could be reason behind the manifestation of the positive symptoms and impaired memory in schizophrenic patients. Despite the overwhelming evidence of the impact of childhood trauma on development of mental disorders, research suggests that the duration of exposure, severity and the uniqueness of the trauma are key determinants of the above relationship. Week 4 Discussion Psychopathology and Psychiatric Disorders

Placing A Discussion with A Family About a Minor Child with Neurodevelopmental Disorder and The Possibility of Trauma Related Etiology

Hosting a discussion between the family of the victimized child and the Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (PMH-NP) is very crucial. First and foremost is to establish a rapport followed by a relevant medical history as well as psychiatric evaluation of the minor child. Next is to appreciate that the family is distressed and stigmatized by their child having a neurodevelopmental disorder hence they need warmth, sensitivity, empathy as well as reassurance as much as possible.

In addition, as a PMH-NP, you need to pay attention to the family and encourage them to freely express their emotions such as sadness and anxiety, and help them cope with their emotional stress (Sadock et al., 2014 Week 4 Discussion Psychopathology and Psychiatric Disorders). After creating a suitable environment for the discussion, you can start by expressing your gratitude and concern to the parents for accepting the care giver role which is not usually easy. At the same time, you can seek clarifications and further information that was unclear and or contradicting at the time of history taking.

Subsequently, offer detailed information about the neurodevelopmental disorder to the family and the role of childhood trauma so that the family may have a clear understanding of the condition of their child (Copeland et al., 2018). Furthermore, emphasize to the family that the outcomes of their child’s condition aren’t inexorable and that they can reduce the risks through proper care despite the condition being a life long journey (Alexander et al., 2021 Week 4 Discussion Psychopathology and Psychiatric Disorders).

Moreover, insist that the siblings have a greater role to play and should not discriminate and isolate the victim. Additionally, train the parents on how to communicate and offer alternative forms of communication with the child in order to create a good parent child relationship as well as offering instructions that target proper child functioning such as good oral hygiene and nutrition among others. Also, you should query the family’s strengths, resources, needs and challenges to determine what they need most and consequently link them to relevant supporting services. Lastly, provide an opportunity for the family to ask any questions and respond appropriately before closing your discussion with appreciation of the family.

Week 4 Discussion: Psychopathology and Psychiatric Disorders References

Alexander, R. T., Langdon, P. E., O’Hara, J., Howell, A., Lane, T., Tharian, R., & Shankar, R. (2021). Psychiatry and neurodevelopmental disorders: experts by experience, clinical care and research. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, 218(1), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2020.237

Copeland, W. E., Shanahan, L., Hinesley, J., Chan, R. F., Aberg, K. A., Fairbank, J. A., van den Oord, E. J. C. G., & Costello, E. J. (2018). Association of childhood trauma exposure with adult psychiatric disorders and functional outcomes. JAMA Network Open, 1(7), e184493. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.4493

Devi, F., Shahwan, S., Teh, W. L., Sambasivam, R., Zhang, Y. J., Lau, Y. W., Ong, S. H., Fung, D., Gupta, B., Chong, S. A., & Subramaniam, M. (2019). The prevalence of childhood trauma in psychiatric outpatients. Annals of General Psychiatry, 18(1), 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12991-019-0239-1

McLaughlin, K. A., Colich, N. L., Rodman, A. M., & Weissman, D. G. (2020). Mechanisms linking childhood trauma exposure and psychopathology: a transdiagnostic model of risk and resilience. BMC Medicine, 18(1), 96. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01561-6

Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan and Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Co. ISBN 9781609139711

Week 4 Discussion Psychopathology and Psychiatric Disorders Instructions

Please complete the following assignment with the grading rubrics attached to it. Note, It should be 100% plagiarism free thanks.
Week 4 discussion Board questions:
1. The root causes of mental illness is not fully understood. But we know that there are likely multiple contributing factors. And we are increasingly recognizing the impact of childhood trauma on the development of mental disorders. Discuss.
2. How might you place a discussion with a family about a minor child in the family with a neurodevelopmental disorder and the possibility of a trauma-related etiology.Assignment Evaluation

Each Discussion Board Response will be evaluated according the to the following rubric:Criterion Possible
Relevance 4 Response addresses the case study prompt.
Evidence Based 4 Response identifies and synthesizes the evidence in the literature
Critical Thinking 5 Review demonstrates critical thinking
Mechanics 2 Writing is logical, APA 7th used; no errors in spelling, grammar, citations or references

Bearing in mind :

COURSE OBJECTIVES

The student will:

1. Examine connections of broad ecological, global, and social determinants of mental health to the etiology and clinical manifestations of psychiatric disorders (PMH-NP CC I & VII; DNP Essentials I, II, III, V, VII & VIII; KMRI) Week 4 Discussion Psychopathology and Psychiatric Disorders

2. Apply understanding of epidemiology and risk analysis of prevalence of disorders or behaviors in exploration of diverse populations across the lifespan (PMH-NP CC VII; DNP Essentials I, II, III, VII & VIII; KRI)

3. Analyze the relationship between normal and specific system alterations associated with mental health problems, psychiatric disorders, and treatment (PMH-NP CC I ;DNP Essentials I, III, VIII; KI)

4. Evaluates the impact of psychiatric disorders on the patient’s cultural, ethnic, & spiritual identity and the impact of practices on outcomes of care (PMH-NP CC VII; DNP Essentials II & V; MR)

5. Implement advanced decision-making skills applicable to the diagnosis and development of a management plan for patients experiencing psychiatric disorders (PMH-NP CC IV ;DNP Essentials I, III, VIII; KI)

6. Explore praxis with the use of technology for thinking and learning about psychiatric disorders and psychopathology (DNP Essentials III; I) Week 4 Discussion Psychopathology and Psychiatric Disorders

Use at least 2 peer review articles/ journals that is not more than 5 years each for both questions , our required textbook, making it a total of 5 references. 1 page for each question making it 2 pages in all .
Textbook::

Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A., & Ruiz, P. (2014). Kaplan and Sadock\’s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry (11th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Co. ISBN 9781609139711. Week 4 Discussion Psychopathology and Psychiatric Disorders

NOTE: MY AREA OF CONCENTRATION IS PSYCHIATRIC MENTAL HEALTH NURSE PRACTIONE(PMHNP)

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