Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders

Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders

Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders

Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders Sample Paper

Trauma is always associated with physical and psychological sequelae. In mental health, trauma has been associated with mood disorders in both children and adults. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is one of the mental disorders that are associated with trauma. The trauma can be physical or emotional in most cases. In this week’s tasks, Dr. Grande Todd (2019 Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders) talks about a junior patient who was diagnosed with PTSD. This paper describes the neurobiological basis of PTSD, provides the basis for diagnosis, and relates the patient’s case in this week’s media.

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Neurobiological Basis for PTSD

Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders

The brain has neurons that communicate with each other through neurohormones and other chemicals. The brain consists of various lobes that are responsible for different functions such as mood, memory, thought processing, and movements. The most prominent manifestations are impairments in cognitive and emotional domains. This concept suggests derangement in the functioning of the hippocampal and related brain areas responsible for thought and emotions.

Various scientific studies have found that there are derangements in levels of catecholamines in the brain of people with PTSD (Dossi et al., 2020). These findings are also seen in people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Dysregulation of neurotransmitters, serotonin, and neurohormones has been associated with the fear, anxiety, stress, and depression seen in PTSD (Hoffman & Taylor, 2019). Dysregulation in other systemic hormones and other substances has been reported (Marin et al., 2019). Cortisol level derangements have been associated with the sequelae of trauma. However, the actual cause of the dysregulation is still unclear. Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders

Diagnosis of PTSD

The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) outlined the criteria for the diagnosis of PTSD. In their criteria, the presentation of the patient is classified into seven features. The DSM-V described that there has to be a history of exposure(s) to death, threatened death, violence, or severe injury (American Psychiatric Association, 2013 Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders). This feature has to be present should be coupled with one or more of the following features: persistence in avoidance of the initiators of the trauma or memory for the trauma, negative cognitive & mood changes, intrusion symptoms, arousal & reactivity alterations related to the trauma, significant clinical in social or physical domains, no physiological disease process is present and can be associated with the symptoms, and that the (Wheeler, 2020) symptoms have lasted for more than one month. Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders

In the case scenario, dr. Grande talked about a younger patient, Joe, who encountered a traumatic event with his father when they were driving. His current presentation included intrusive symptoms, hyper avoidance, disorganized understanding of the event leading to the trauma. In my view, this patient meets the criteria for diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder. There is an evident history of physical and emotional trauma from the traffic accident and the ensuing quarrel between the father and the other driver.

Joe met the aforementioned criteria because we see his school life has deteriorated with violence and accessional aggression. He presented more than one month after the occurrence of the traumatic event. Other diagnoses are also possible in this patient. Major depressive disorder and conduct disorders are possible diagnoses that are evident from his presentation but the posttraumatic sequelae predominate.

Another Psychotherapy Treatment Option for Joe

Dr. Grande recommended trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for Joe. Another option available for Joe is Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy. EMDR therapy also focuses on trauma but briefly (Shapiro, 2018 Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders). The target of this psychotherapy is to improve the emotions associated with the trauma as well the vividness of the scenes. The through and responses to the memory of the trauma as well the reencounter of similar trauma are improved with the EMDR. The efficacy of this method is varied with the target patient or population. EMDR is not the gold standard treatment for PTSD.

Gold standard treatment modalities are usually considered the best efficacious and effective method is in the genre of treatment for a particular condition (Brodsky & Lichtenstein, 2020). Trauma-focused CBT is usually considered the gold standard for PTSD. However, some studies have reported that trauma-focused CBT and EMDR are equally efficacious. Joe would benefit from EMDR the same way he would benefit from CBT. Using gold standard methods provides the best outcomes for nurses and therapists. However, it should be noted that gold standard methods of treatment are cast in stone but are bound to change with new evidence generated through evidence-based practice. Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders

My Sources

My sources have included two books and five journal articles. No websites have been used. I consider my sources scholarly because they have been peer-reviewed and structured in a scholarly manner and language. The database from which they have been retrieved are credible in providing peer-reviewed sources.

Conclusion

The neurological basis of PTSD has been described through evidence-based practice. Dysregulation of neurohormones and neurotransmitters has been reported. This week’s case was of joe a young boy who presented with PTSD symptoms following a traumatic incident on the road. He was prescribed trauma-focused CBT. However, EMDR is also an option despite not being a gold standard for this condition. Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders

Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5 (R)) (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Association Publishing.

Brodsky, S. L., & Lichtenstein, B. (2020). The gold standard and the pyrite principle: Toward a supplemental frame of reference. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 562. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00562

Dossi, G., Delvecchio, G., Prunas, C., Soares, J. C., & Brambilla, P. (2020). Neural bases of cognitive impairments in post-traumatic stress disorders: A mini-review of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging findings. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 176. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00176

Grande, T. (2019, August 21). Presentation example: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). https://youtu.be/RkSv_zPH-M4

Hoffman, A. N., & Taylor, A. N. (2019). Stress reactivity after traumatic brain injury: implications for comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder. Behavioral Pharmacology, 30(2 and 3), 115–121. https://doi.org/10.1097/fbp.0000000000000461

Marin, M.-F., Geoffrion, S., Juster, R.-P., Giguère, C.-E., Marchand, A., Lupien, S. J., & Guay, S. (2019). High cortisol awakening response in the aftermath of workplace violence exposure moderates the association between acute stress disorder symptoms and PTSD symptoms. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 104, 238–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.03.006

Shapiro, F. (2018). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, third edition: Basic principles, protocols, and procedures (3rd ed.). Guilford Publications.

Wheeler, K. (Ed.). (2020). Psychotherapy for the advanced practice psychiatric nurse: A how-to guide for evidence-based practice (3rd ed.). Springer Publishing.

Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders Instructions

Week 9: Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders
Disorders resulting from trauma are significantly different from other psychiatric-mental health issues. Unlike disorders such as schizophrenia or major depressive disorder, trauma-related disorders do not occur randomly in the population. Instead, trauma is something that occurs as a result of the lived experience of a traumatic event. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (2017), more than half of the population will experience a traumatic event during their lifetime. Although most people will recover from the trauma on their own, some require therapeutic interventions. While there are medications that can help individuals with trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the foundation of treatment continues to be psychotherapy. Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related DisordersThis week, you explore psychotherapy for trauma by assessing a case presentation for clients presenting with posttraumatic stress disorder. You also examine therapies for treating these clients and consider potential outcomes.

Reference: National Institute of Mental Health. (2017). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd.shtml

Learning Objectives

Students will:

Explain the neurobiological basis for PTSD
Apply assessment and diagnostic reasoning skills to clients presenting with posttraumatic stress disorder
Recommend therapeutic approaches for treating clients presenting with posttraumatic stress disorder
Analyze the importance of using evidence-based psychotherapy treatments for clients with posttraumatic stress disorder

Learning Resources
Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

For reference as needed
American Psychiatric Association. (2017). Clinical practice guideline of PTSD. https://www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline. Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2014). SAMHSA\’s concept of trauma and guidance for a trauma-informed approach. https://ncsacw.samhsa.gov/userfiles/files/SAMHSA_Trauma.pdf

Credit: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. SAMHSA’s Concept of Trauma and Guidance for a Trauma-Informed Approach. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 14-4884. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014. Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders

Tye, S., Van Voorhees, E., Hu, C., & Lineberry, T. (2015). Preclinical perspectives on posttraumatic stress disorder criteria in DSM-5. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 23(1), 51–58. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4542003/

Credit: Preclinical Perspectives on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Criteria in DSM-5 by Susannah Tye, PhD, Elizabeth Van Voorhees, PhD, Chunling Hu, MD, PhD, and Timothy Lineberry, MD, in HARVARD REVIEW OF PSYCHIATRY, Vol. 23/Issue 1. Copyright 2015 by ROUTLEDGE. Reprinted by permission of ROUTLEDGE via the Copyright Clearance Center. Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders

Wheeler, K. (Ed.). (2020). Psychotherapy for the advanced practice psychiatric nurse: A how-to guide for evidence-based practice (3rd ed.). Springer Publishing.

Chapter 3, “Assessment and Diagnosis” (Previously read in Week 2)
Chapter 7, “Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy”
Chapter 11, “Trauma Resiliency Model Therapy”
Chapter 15, “Trauma-Informed Medication Management”
Chapter 17, “Stabilization for Trauma and Dissociation”
Chapter 18, “Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Complex Trauma”
Required Media (click to expand/reduce) Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders

Grande, T. (2019, August 21). Presentation example: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RkSv_zPH-M4

Gift from Within. (Producer). (2008). PTSD and veterans: A conversation with Dr. Frank Ochberg [Video]. https://video-alexanderstreet-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/watch/ptsd-and-veterans-a-conversation-with-dr-frank-ochberg

Assignment: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Photo Credit: Getty Images/iStockphoto

It is estimated that more almost 7% of the U.S. population will experience posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their lifetime (National Institute of Mental Health, 2017). This debilitating disorder often interferes with an individual’s ability to function in daily life. Common symptoms of anxiousness and depression frequently lead to behavioral issues, adolescent substance abuse issues, and even physical ailments. For this Assignment, you examine a PTSD video case study and consider how you might assess and treat clients presenting with PTSD. Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders

To prepare:

Review this week’s Learning Resources and reflect on the insights they provide about diagnosing and treating PTSD.
View the media Presentation Example: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and assess the client in the case study.
For guidance on assessing the client, refer to Chapter 3 of the Wheeler text.
Note: To complete this Assignment, you must assess the client, but you are not required to submit a formal comprehensive client assessment.

The Assignment
Succinctly, in 1–2 pages, address the following:

Briefly explain the neurobiological basis for PTSD illness.

Discuss the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for PTSD and relate these criteria to the symptomology presented in the case study. Does the video case presentation provide sufficient information to derive a PTSD diagnosis? Justify your reasoning. Do you agree with the other diagnoses in the case presentation? Why or why not? Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders

Discuss one other psychotherapy treatment option for the client in this case study. Explain whether your treatment option is considered a “gold standard treatment” from a clinical practice guideline perspective, and why using gold standard, evidence-based treatments from clinical practice guidelines is important for psychiatric-mental health nurse practitioners.

Support your Assignment with specific examples from this week’s media and at least three peer-reviewed, evidence-based sources. Explain why each of your supporting sources is considered scholarly. Attach the PDFs of your sources. Week 9 Psychotherapy With Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders

By Day 7
Submit your Assignment. Also attach and submit PDFs of the sources you used.

Submission and Grading Information
To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK9Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
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If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.

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