Health Promotion Plan
Over time the prevalence of the use of tobacco has decreased due to increased awareness creation. However, regardless of the reduction in rate of consumption, tobacco use is still regarded as one of the major preventable causes of numerous health problems such as respiratory illnesses, cancer, and premature deaths worldwide (Azmi et al., 2021).
The use of tobacco leads to both mental and physical health problems. Tobacco smoke contains carcinogens and other toxic substances such as Lead that harm the respiratory tract directly. Most smokers are aware and admit that smoking is dangerous to them. Some smokers state that smoking is not something they enjoy doing, but they still smoke to satisfy their smoking urge.
According to Azmi et al. (2021), tobacco use greatly affects both active smokers and passive smokers. In this paper, the focus will be on health promotion and tobacco cessation plan concerning young adults’ population. The paper will also explain the pattern of use, prevalence, cessation and its benefits, pharmacological and social factors of maintaining healthy behavior, interventions, and goals at individual and population level.
The Population Affected
Although tobacco use varies by factors such as sociodemographic factors and geographic factors, it is still prevalent amongst young adults and adolescents globally. Recently, the prevalence of tobacco use has been 25.2%, whereby the rate is considerably higher in males than females in the U.S. (Ahmad et al., 2021). In the United States, smoking cigarettes alone causes approximately 44300 deaths in a year, and about 49000 deaths are attributed to secondhand smoking, also known as passive smoking (Ahmad et al., 2021).
E-cigarettes, a battery-operated device that delivers aerosolized nicotine, among other harmful substances to the smoker’s respiratory tract through inbreathing, are designed to appear stylish to attract attention from adolescents and young adults. However, advertisements of e-cigarettes depict them as healthy compared to other traditional cigarettes.
Research conducted recently found out that e-cigarettes contain dangerous chemicals, although their levels are lower than traditional cigarettes. Given their content, e-cigarettes use can result in various cardiovascular disorders and cancers. E-cigarettes contain nicotine, which, even on low doses is responsible for causing vasoconstriction, cancers, and other cardiovascular effects (Chandrasker, 2020).
The Healthy People initiative came up with several goals to eradicate tobacco use among adults and mostly among the young population. The initiative’s objectives were to increase the price of tobacco products and encourage smoking cessation interventions in clinical settings (Greenberg et al., 2016).
The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) aims to use the media to have anti-tobacco campaigns to correct the existing false-positive notion of smoking and, therefore, reduce tobacco products. The Healthy People 2020 report states that since 1964, smoking has led to more than 20 million deaths, without mentioning the dangers of passive smoking. Passive smokers are at risk of cardiovascular disorders, lung cancer, and stroke. In children, passive smoking can lead to sudden infant death syndrome and respiratory infections, among others (Daube & White, 2018).
Tobacco Cessation Best Practices Analysis.
In order to avoid premature deaths and the health consequences brought about by smoking, it is essential for smoking cessation to be done before age 30. Numerous population-based interventions of tobacco cessation have been put forward. Among the cessation interventions are evidence-based tobacco treatment and educational sessions (Ostroff, 2021). The ambulatory care setting gives a stimulating environment to identify tobacco users and gives a specified approach for cessation.
At cessation clinics, the tobacco cessation providers and clinical pharmacists are certified. As mentioned earlier, there are numerous approaches to tobacco cessation, including educational sessions, medication, and lifestyle and behavioral modifications. These approaches help improve the success rate and decrease tobacco dependency. At the cessation clinics, the cessation sessions are done at individual and group levels and done in line with the Public Health service’s clinical practice guidelines. However, inadequate staff training and other implementation challenges have been identified as barriers to the delivery of evidence-based tobacco treatment (Ostroff, 2021).
Physical exercise has proved effective in helping smokers to adhere to cessation. It is evident from various literature that physical exercise reduces the urge to smoke and prevents the manifestation of symptoms in smokers abstaining temporarily. However, due to various health conditions, exercise is not recommended to everyone. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before deciding about the type of health intervention in tobacco cessation (Hoang, 2020).
Proposed Educational Cessations
One of the most effective approaches for cessation in young adults and adolescents is educational sessions. It can be used to warn young adults and adolescents on the thoughtless use of tobacco and its consequences. Using valid and relatable evidence to the participants will help educators deliver information on tobacco use and the consequences effectively.
Educators should ensure that this information is delivered with the urgency it deserves and without a patronizing tone. The proposed sessions will expose young adults and adolescents to how tobacco products are made appealing through advertisements, thus convincing them to use them. As Mshigeni (2021) proposes, information on nicotine should also be provided in educational sessions, preferably through peer testimonies and evidence-based research.
More so, educational sessions should aim to cultivate a relationship with the young adults and get feedback from them to identify areas of improvement in educational sessions. Building a healthy relationship with adolescents and young adults helps encourage them to continue with cessation processes, leading to success. Educational sessions should also aim at using numerical scale answers in gauging the knowledge of young adults participating in cessation interventions. This will help educators consider the participants’ awareness while designing the educational sessions (Mshigeni, 2021).
The use of tobacco has been identified as one of the major factors contributing to health issues among adolescents and young adults and leading to many deaths annually all over the world. Specifically, the number of young adults and adolescents using tobacco and tobacco products keeps increasing over time, putting this population at higher risk of the consequences.
Young adults have been found to indulge in smoking tobacco to live in the moment and look modern among their peers. Hence, tobacco use and its risk are most prevalent among adolescents and the young adult population. Tobacco cessation is therefore essential for healthy behavior and lifestyle. Cessation programs should therefore aim at reaching the young adults’ population. Cessation goals should be realistic and attainable, and it is important to engage the participants in designing the goals and laying out the cessation plan.
AlMulla, A., Mamtani, R., Cheema, S., Maisonneuve, P., BaSuhai, J. A., Mahmoud, G., & Kouyoumjian, S. (2021). Epidemiology of tobacco use in Qatar: Prevalence and its associated factors. PloS One, 16(4), e0250065. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0250065
Azmi, I. S. M. M., Mahdi, N. N. R. N., Abd Aziz, A., Yusop, Y. M., Aung, M. M. T., Hassan, A., … & Amin, R. M. (2021). The Prevalence of Secondhand Smoke and Its Associated Factors among Adults Residing in the Low Income Residence, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. Asian Journal of Medicine and Biomedicine, 5(1), 19-24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.37231/ajmb.2021.5.1.411
Chandrasekhar, V. (2020). Tobacco Toxicity in Tobacco Chewers. Medico Legal Update, 20(3), 217-220. DOI: https://doi.org/10.37506/mlu.v20i3.1399
Daube, Mike; White, Sarah L. (2018). Smoke-Free Policies. Circulation, 138(6), 567–569. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.035337
Greenberg, A. J., Serrano, K. J., Thai, C. L., Blake, K. D., Moser, R. P., Hesse, B. W., & Ahern, D. K. (2016). Public use of electronic personal health information: Measuring progress of the Healthy People 2020 objectives. Health Policy and Technology, 6(1), 33-39. doi:10.1016/j.hlpt.2016.08.003
Hoang, M. (2020). Does Pre-Cessation Physical Activity Impact Smoking Treatment Outcomes? A Longitudinal Study of Treatment-Seeking Smokers in the General Population (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/handle/1807/101259
Mshigeni, S. K. (2021). E-cigarettes epidemic and the need for education. International Journal of Behavioural and Healthcare Research, 7(3), 163-174. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJBHR.2021.114802
Ostroff, J. S., Bolutayo Gaffney, K. L., O’Brien, M., deLeon‐Sanchez, S. T., Whitlock, C. W., Kotsen, C. S., Carter-Harris, L., Barnerjee, S. C., & Schofield, E. (2021). Training oncology care providers in the assessment and treatment of tobacco use and dependence. ACS Journals. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33545
Health Promotion Plan Example 2
Bullying can be defined as the act of seeking to cause harm, intimidate or coerce someone, especially an individual who is perceived to be vulnerable. Bullying has negative impacts on the general well-being of the individual who is being bullied. The act greatly impacts a person’s social, emotional, academic and health aspects (Nozaki, 2019). Nursing practitioners today have a key role to play in the identification and development of plans aimed at addressing various health issues that the community faces. The aim of this paper is to focus on a community health concern, explain its importance in health promotion and focus on health goals related to the health concern.
Analyzing Community Health Concern.
Bullying is widespread in our community and is often witnessed in schools. The shocking fact is that bullying continues even at home. Statistics have indicated that approximately 90% of students between fourth and eighth grade have been bullied or harassed in one way or another (Hicks et al., 2018). This situation continues even up to senior levels of education and has led to several instances of dropping out of school, school shootings among other vices.
Bullying was recently recognised by the National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine as a public health problem. The report published noted the vast biological and psychological effects associated with bullying (Gillespie et al., 2018). It also highlighted the importance of collaborative efforts between parents, teachers, school administrators, health care professionals, policy makers and other care givers in addressing the issue of bullying.
Several emotional and psychological manifestations greatly impact the lives of both the victims and the bullies even long into the future greatly pointing out the significance of bullying as a public health concern that requires to be addressed. Physical symptoms are often observed in victims of bullying. Individuals will often complain of occasional headaches and stomach aches, insomnia among other physical manifestations. People who are victims of bullying often experience more than one symptom at any given time necessitating the need to seek medical attention.
Several psychological symptoms are often observed among victims. The most notable are depression or severe anxiety. Eating disorders may also arise especially in instances where individuals are bullied because of their weight or eating habits. Bullying also greatly impacts the stress response mechanism within the victim (Rauschenberg et al., 2021). This is oftenly associated with impaired cognitive functions and the individual’s inability to fully control their emotions.
Bullying has been shown to greatly impact an individual’s general well-being. It greatly predisposes or increases the risk of developing mental health conditions, greatly impacts a person’s self-esteem and sense of self-acceptance. It also increases the risk of drug and substance use. All these indicate the great impact bullying has on the health and overall well-being of people and the importance to urgently discuss this issue.
Why is a health concern important for health promotion?
Identification of a health concern is critical in the identification of the age bracket or group that is commonly affected by the health issue. This is critical in the formulation of a health promotion plan that is specifically tailored for the most affected group. A health concern also enables the parties involved to comprehend the risk factors predisposing to the condition. This facilitates formulation of a health promotion plan that addresses these risk factors consequently assisting to deal with the health concern.
School going children are the ones at the highest risk of bullying or being bullied. At this age, children may be deemed as weak, vulnerable and lacking the ability to defend themselves. Anxiety, depression and low self esteem is rampant at this age. Impaired social skills resulting in few friends and attention seeking through means that may be deemed annoying or provocative is also oftenly observed within this group. All these factors greatly increase the likelihood of being bullied. all these factors play a huge role in predisposing to bullying.
A health promotion educational plan is critical in addressing the issue of bullying and has several benefits. An educational plan is critical in matching the available resources to the issue that intends to be solved. The health educational plan also ensures effective and efficient utilization of the scarce resources aimed at addressing the public health issue (Hughes et al., 2018); in this case bullying. A plan also ensures that there is no duplication of activities during the health promotion campaign. Planning also aids in the prioritisation of needs which is critical in utilization of the scarce resources. All these activities provide various benefits during the health promotion activity.
One of the goals towards addressing the issues related to bullying is the reduction of existing direct and indirect bullying problems across the various levels of education, both inside and outside school (Dollard et al., 2017). This can be done by close collaboration between school administrators, teachers, parents, students and other key stakeholders. Conducting programs aimed at educating children on the negative effects of bullying can go a long way in reducing the cases of bullying that are reported. Taking action against reported bullies can also be key in addressing this issue. Keeping track of the number of bullying incidences observed at school within a particular time can be a good indicator of whether there is progress or not.
Preventing the development of new bullying complications is another key goal. Bullying prevention programs have been proven to greatly reduce incidences of bullying consequently preventing the development of new problems related to bullying. These programs involve bullies, victims, peers, teachers and the entire school in certain instances. These programs greatly enhance self-esteem and self-awareness, improve social skills, conflict resolution and encourage teamwork. This prove to be critical in addressing bullying and other disruptive tendencies.
The creation of a friendly, safe and positive environment within the school is another goal aimed at addressing the issue of bullying. This entails collaboration between school administrators, students, teachers and school staff. Creation of a culture that promotes respect and inclusion to all is key in reducing and completely eradicating bullying (Brewer et al., 2018). Encouraging everyone within the school to keep an eye out for, report and condemn any incidences of bullying is also vital in ensuring that the issue of bullying is addressed.
A sociogram is a vital tool applicable in charting the relationships within a group. The environment both at school and at home greatly affects an individual and is key in enhancing the tendency to bully. Family background is a major consideration when developing a sociogram. Most students tend to bully other because they are bullied at home. Emotional factors such as reduced self-esteem and sense of self-acceptance are also a key consideration. Social skills and social interaction with other students should also be considered when developing a sociogram.
In conclusion, bullying is a vice that greatly impacts both the physical and psychological well-being of many individuals. The impacts of bullying greatly impact a person’s life well into adulthood. It is vital to engage all stakeholders to try and address the issue of bullying. Reducing the incidences of bullying reported and creation of a safe and positive environment at school can go a long way in curbing bullying.
Brewer, S. L., Jr, Brewer, H. J., & Kulik, K. S. (2018). Bullying Victimization in Schools: Why the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child Model Is Essential. The Journal of school health, 88(11), 794–802. https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12686
Dollard, M. F., Dormann, C., Tuckey, M. R., & Escartín, J. (2017). Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) and enacted PSC for workplace bullying and psychological health problem reduction. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26(6), 844–857. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432x.2017.1380626
Gillespie, G. L., Willis, D. G., & Amar, A. F. (2018). Review and application of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine bullying or cyberbullying recommendations for screening and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Nursing outlook, 66(4), 372–378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2018.03.003
Hicks, J., Jennings, L., Jennings, S., Berry, S., & Green, D.-A. (2018). Middle School bullying: Student reported perceptions and prevalence. Journal of Child and Adolescent Counseling, 4(3), 195–208. https://doi.org/10.1080/23727810.2017.1422645
Hughes, J., Morrison, L., Mamolo, A., Laffier, J., & de Castell, S. (2018). Addressing bullying through critical making. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(1), 309–325. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12714
Nozaki, Y. (2019). Why do bullies matter?: The impacts of bullying involvement on adolescents’ life satisfaction via an adaptive approach. Children and Youth Services Review, 107, 104486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.104486
Rauschenberg, C., van Os, J., Goedhart, M., Schieveld, J., & Reininghaus, U. (2021). Bullying victimization and stress sensitivity in help-seeking youth: findings from an experience sampling study. European child & adolescent psychiatry, 30(4), 591–605. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-020-01540-5