Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

The application and implementation of new healthcare technology require support from current literature. The literature may shed light on the benefits of using different clinical systems and the challenges encountered before, thus helping avoid similar challenges.

In addition, research informs the selection of the best types of clinical systems. It provides results of related efficiencies and outcomes, assisting informaticists and healthcare institutions in trying different clinical systems (Atasoy et al., 2019). One of the commonly used clinical systems is remote patient monitoring technology. There are different technologies and devices used in remote patient monitoring.

Therefore, research literature can be used to identify the best, based on previous studies and outcomes or efficiencies. This essay presents the literature review in an annotated bibliography form, focusing on the role of patient monitoring systems in improving the outcomes of diabetes patients and improving the efficiency of diabetes care.

Annotated Bibliography

Su, D., Michaud, T. L., Estabrooks, P., Schwab, R. J., Eiland, L. A., Hansen, G., DeVany, M., Zhang, D., Li, Y., Pagán, J. A., & Siahpush, M. (2019). Diabetes Management Through Remote Patient Monitoring: The Importance of Patient Activation and Engagement with the Technology. Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association25(10), 952–959. https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2018.0205

The study focuses on assessing the importance of patient activation and engagement with remote patient monitoring technology in diabetes management among type 2 diabetes patients. Su et al. (2019) note that despite the research results on the effectiveness of telemedicine, and remote patient monitoring, a clear report is needed to identify the effectiveness in patient outcomes. Therefore, the study measured the improvement of care outcomes among type 2 diabetes patients using changes in HbA1c levels.

A sample of 1354 type 2 diabetes patients used remote monitoring technology for three months. The study found that most patients embraced remote patient monitoring technology and devices and had improved their self-monitoring skills over time. At the end of the study, the patients showed reduced HbA1c levels, thus indicating proper glycemic control, which can be translated as desirable diabetes care outcomes.

The lessons learned from applying remote patient monitoring systems in diabetes management are that it improves patient outcomes. According to Su et al. (2019), patients are more likely to take keen initiative when monitoring themselves remotely, thus promoting better health outcomes by preventing complications and unnecessary healthcare expenses.

Johnson, E. L., & Miller, E. (2022). Remote patient monitoring in diabetes: how to acquire, manage, and use all of the data. Diabetes Spectrum35(1), 43-56. https://doi.org/10.2337/dsi21-0015

            The focus of this study is to identify the different factors facilitating the acquisition, management, and use of diabetes technology and telehealth in diabetes management. According to Johnson and Miller (2022), remote patient monitoring technology would be ineffective without being complemented by telehealth, which enables the patient to communicate with the care provider and upload their progress so that the care provider can access them and give feedback.

Therefore, it is vital to identify the facilitating factors, to avoid missing out or making preventable mistakes. The diabetes care remote monitoring systems assessed in the study included insulin pumps, health apps and personal digital devices, smart insulin pens and pen caps, connected glucose meters, and continuous glucose monitoring systems. These devices led to improved diabetes care outcomes since lower HbA1c levels and self-monitoring behavior were noted among patients using them (Johnson & Miller, 2022). The lessons learned from applying these systems is that it is vital to consider other facilitating factors, such as patients’ knowledge and confidence in using remote patient monitoring technology to produce the desired patient outcomes.

 Al-Badri, M., & Hamdy, O. (2021). Diabetes clinic reinvented: Will technology change the future of Diabetes care? Therapeutic advances in endocrinology and metabolism12, 2042018821995368. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042018821995368

This study aimed to evaluate a virtual diabetes clinic, comparing it with regular primary care clinics, to determine whether diabetes remote care technologies such as remote patient monitoring devices increase efficiency in diabetes care. Al-Badri and Hamdy (2021) state that diabetes is a condition that requires continuous management, so remote patient monitoring technologies would increase efficiency and thus improve patient care outcomes. To validate the notion, the study assessed a complete virtual diabetes clinic. The must-have technologies for patients getting care services in the clinic include remote patient monitoring devices, patient portals/online records and mobile phones/computers to facilitate telehealth (Al-Badri & Hamdy, 2021).

The study further shows that incorporating these technologies and services in diabetes care is attributed to successful patient engagement in diabetes management, proper glycemic control, improved quality of life, and reduced diabetes complications and related healthcare costs. Remote patient monitoring also improves diabetes care efficiency since providers can provide services to more patients at a reduced cost (Al-Badri & Hamdy, 2021). The lessons learned from this study include the importance of shifting physical diabetes care to virtual care in reducing costs and thus improving care efficiencies. Additionally, remote patient monitoring improves self-management behavior, improving care outcomes.

Salehi, S., Olyaeemanesh, A., Mobinizadeh, M., Nasli-Esfahani, E., & Riazi, H. (2020). Assessment of remote patient monitoring (RPM) systems for patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders19, 115-127. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-019-00482-3

This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of remote patient monitoring systems in controlling glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes patients compared to usual care. The study searched and reviewed other published studies from the most important electronic databases, whereby the main outcome was HbA1c levels.

The review results showed that studies that employed remote patient monitoring systems and technologies had controlled glycosylated hemoglobin (Salehi et al., 2020). In addition, Salehi et al. (2020) note that patients who used remote patient monitoring technologies had better HbA1c levels than those who used routine patient care. The lessons learned from this study include the importance of assessing the efficacy of clinical systems before implementing them. These assessments can also be done by reviewing related research.

Summary

The essence of using clinical information systems in care is mainly improving outcomes and increasing care efficiency. Diabetes care is one of the areas that have adopted the use of clinical systems, especially remote patient monitoring systems. The literature reviewed above has justified improving patient outcomes and care efficiencies in diabetes care while using remote patient monitoring systems.

The future of diabetes care depends on technology (Al-Badiri & Hamdy, 2021); however, it is essential to educate patients on how to acquire, manage and use data from remote monitoring systems (Jonhson & Miller,2022; Su et al., 2019), to lead to improved patient outcomes and care efficiencies. Therefore, remote patient monitoring increases patient outcomes and efficiency in diabetes care.

References

Al-Badri, M., & Hamdy, O. (2021). Diabetes clinic reinvented: will technology change the future of Diabetes care? Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism12, 2042018821995368. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042018821995368

Atasoy, H., Greenwood, B. N., & McCullough, J. S. (2019). The Digitization of Patient Care: A Review of the Effects of Electronic Health Records on Health Care Quality and Utilization. Annual Review of Public Health, pp. 40, 487–500. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040218-044206

Johnson, E. L., & Miller, E. (2022). Remote patient monitoring in diabetes: how to acquire, manage, and use all of the data. Diabetes Spectrum, 35(1), 43-56. https://doi.org/10.2337/dsi21-0015

Salehi, S., Olyaeemanesh, A., Mobinizadeh, M., Nasli-Esfahani, E., & Riazi, H. (2020). Assessment of remote patient monitoring (RPM) systems for patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders19, 115-127. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-019-00482-3

Su, D., Michaud, T. L., Estabrooks, P., Schwab, R. J., Eiland, L. A., Hansen, G., DeVany, M., Zhang, D., Li, Y., Pagán, J. A., & Siahpush, M. (2019). Diabetes Management Through Remote Patient Monitoring: The Importance of Patient Activation and Engagement with the Technology. Telemedicine Journal and E-health: The Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association25(10), 952–959. https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2018.0205

Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies Instructions

To Prepare:

  • Reflect on the impact of clinical systems on outcomes and efficiencies within the context of nursing practice and healthcare delivery.
  • Conduct a search for recent (within the last 5 years) research focused on the application of clinical systems. The research should provide evidence to support the use of one type of clinical system to improve outcomes and/or efficiencies, such as “the use of personal health records or portals to support patients newly diagnosed with diabetes.”
  • Identify and select 4 peer-reviewed research articles from your research.
  • For information about annotated bibliographies, visit https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/assignments/annotatedbibliographiesLinks to an external site.

The Assignment: (4-5 pages NOT including the title and reference page)

In a 4- to 5-page paper, synthesize the peer-reviewed research you reviewed. Format your Assignment as an Annotated Bibliography. Be sure to address the following:

  • Identify the 4 peer-reviewed research articles you reviewed, citing each in APA format.
  • Include an introduction explaining the purpose of the paper.
  • Summarize each study, explaining the improvement to outcomes, efficiencies, and lessons learned from the application of the clinical system each peer-reviewed article described. Be specific and provide examples.
  • In your conclusion, synthesize the findings from the 4 peer-reviewed research articles. 
  • Use APA format and include a title page.
  • Provide a reference page.