MSN-FP6016 Assessment 4 Assessment Strategies and Complete Course Plan Sample
Assessment Strategies and Complete Course Plan
Table of Contents.
1.0. An overview of the course: topic, setting, and audience
1.1. Learning theories and diversity
1.2. Teaching Strategies
1.3. Management and Motivation
1.4. Assessment strategies
1.5. Barriers to learning when designing and developing educational programs
Assessment Strategies and Complete Course Plan
Nursing education requires various considerations such as learner types and needs, environmental needs, teaching strategies, and evaluation methods. Nursing topics have different requirements, which should all be captured in the teaching plan. Teaching plans are regulatory requirements, and they also help educators prepare to deliver education to learners in acceptable ways.
In addition, teaching plans are a good evaluation tool for educators and help ensure they track their achievement of objectives for future references and planning. The inappropriateness of teaching methods, learning environments, and evaluation methods to failure and unrepresentative learning. The teaching plan should also consider learner diversity for effective learning. This paper is an overview of a teaching plan from teaching strategies to assessment strategies.
1.0: An Overview of the Course: Topic, Setting, And Audience
The topic of interest for this teaching plan is nursing ethics for nursing students. Nursing ethics is a broad topic that prepares nurses to interact with patients ethically as they provide care in healthcare settings. Nursing ethics also teach students how to handle patients and their families and other healthcare providers without interfering with the relationship. It also ensures these students act in a manner that does not jeopardize patient, colleagues, and personal safety (Bah & Sey-Sawo, 2018).
The most appropriate and selected environment is in the clinical setting. Ethics usually are taught in the classroom, and this teaching plan introduces nursing ethics in the healthcare settings. Unlike classroom environments, the clinical areas provide room for real-world practice and applying the learned knowledge, promoting understanding and retention. It also increases the student’s confidence when interacting with others and providing care.
- Learning Theories and Diversity
Learning theories provide a framework and rationale for educators to deliver knowledge to the students. The behavioral learning theory is the most applicable and appropriate theory to help teach ethics in the clinical area. A significant philosophy by behavioral learning theorists is that learning occurs only when behavior changes. The importance of teaching ethics is to ensure students apply their learned knowledge in their practice (Bah & Sey-Sawo, 2018).
Hence, behavioral learning theory is the best theory for this topic, audience, and environment in nursing. The behavioral theory holds that teachers are the most important persons and deliver knowledge to the students who are passive participants. In addition, learning depends on reinforcements, and students recognize stimulants based on the reinforcements. Creating a reward system for successful learning and implementation of learned knowledge is thus essential; motivation in learning is integral. These reinforcements should be varied from time to time, and psychological rewards are crucial. Therefore, commending students for good work is vital to retain their morale and motivation.
Another critical postulation of the theory is that stimulus must be repetitive to produce the desired effect (Brown, 2019). In learning, repetition is essential to ensure the behavior required is strengthened. In nursing ethics, the principles and application ability can weaken without practice. The nursing educator should ensure the student receives many practice exercises to foster understanding, recall, and expertise in learning (Brown, 2019).
The primary intention of teaching ethics in the clinical setting is to foster their application, and thus, giving students many exercises will be an integral step in promoting their understanding (Bah & Sey-Sawo, 2018). Learners also learn by interacting with their environment. Students interact differently with the environments. Thus, their interpretation and decision will depend on their understanding. Educators will utilize the opportunity to explain and help them apply ethical standards, considering their culture and the various personal differences. Applying the theory in the multiple ways mentioned will foster learning in the clinical environment and accommodate cultural diversity.
The social learning theory is also applicable to teaching in this context. The most applicable postulation is that learners learn by observing and imitating others (Ghazi et al., 2018 In this context, the educator will foster learning in the students by performing similar required tasks. For example, the preceptor can solve several ethical problems in the presence of the students to promote their learning. Students imitate the behavior and solve other problems as the educator showed them.
The cognitive learning theory holds that behavior results from internal mental processes and the students are the key determiners of the behavior they perform. Educators can influence behavior through information and practice. They talk students into changing behavior in practice. The behavioral theory is the most applicable in teaching. However, a good teaching plan should encompass all relevant aspects of the theories (Brown, 2019). The significant points regarding the theories discussed will provide baseline data for teaching strategies, motivation, and student evaluation/assessment.
1.2 Teaching Strategies
Teaching strategies are ways in which educators deliver course materials to learners, engage them, and encourage the use of different skills sets. Teaching strategies vary in different environments. Nursing education environments are primarily classroom and clinical settings. Clinical areas are characterized by limited time due to other clinical duties. There is limited space/room for learning. However, there is more accessible access to patients and healthcare equipment. There are several assumptions when choosing teaching strategies in this teaching plan.
The teaching strategies assume that there is limited time, and learning should occur in the limited time available. Another assumption is that healthcare resources for learning are readily available in healthcare institutions (Chinai et al., 2018). The strategies also assume that students have access to patient information and understand the regulations regarding securing patient information. The last assumption is that class educators collaborate with clinical preceptors in teaching these students. These assumptions shape the choice of teaching strategies in the clinical setting.
The most appropriate teaching strategies for teaching nursing ethics are Problem-based learning, role-playing, and case studies (Jayasekara et al., 2018). These strategies are all learner-centered and focused. These strategies align with the behavioral theory that students learn by interacting with their environments. All these strategies begin with a demonstration or group exercise, aligning with social theory postulation of learning by observing that the students imitate to carry out their practice. The educator helps solve a few problems and then gives students work depending on the teaching strategy.
Problem-based learning is a method utilized in various settings. In this strategy, the educator identifies a current problem in the healthcare setting and attempts to solve it with the students to help them understand how the problems are solved. The preceptor then identifies unfamiliar issues and allows the students to solve the problem using their knowledge and other sources of information (Wosinski et al., 2018). This strategy promotes active learning, engages students, increases their confidence, and unearthing new knowledge. Problem-based learning is one of the most used clinical settings because it fosters understanding, retention, and reproduction of the knowledge learned.
Case studies are an essential instructional method that encompasses a story (healthcare) with ‘hidden’ information. Students explore to decide or solve the problem therein, developing their scientific knowledge and skills (Wosinski et al., 2018). The information utilized is from deidentified patients in the healthcare setting or other institutions. Educators select case studies with relevant information to their desired goal. Case studies also promote active student participation, hence retaining knowledge and mastery of the required competencies.
Role-playing is a vital strategy applied both in clinical and classroom settings. In this strategy, students play alternating roles to produce the required scenario. Vivid ethical issues are rare, despite applying nursing ethics every time in the clinical settings. Nursing students act out the required scenes with guidance from the educator or preceptor and attempt to solve the scenario (Church, 2021). Role-playing is essential in creating physical involvement, social interactions, and humor among peers. The strategy is limited by time and space, but it is integral when resources such as patients are scarce in the healthcare settings.
In clinical settings, relying on one teaching strategy can be pretty ineffective, and exhaustion and boredom result from monotony. Teaching should be exciting and provoke students’ curiosity to ensure they actively learn. Different students conform to different teaching strategies, and diversity is appreciated in clinical settings (Wosinski et al., 2018). Multimodal teaching methods that combine all these strategies and mix them promote student participation through personal and cultural diversity. Multimodal teaching strategies effectively ensure students understand what they learn and find it engaging and interesting.
Teaching nursing ethics in clinical settings ensures students apply them in their practice. The expected outcomes for these lessons are tied to ethical practice. One of the expected outcomes is decreased patient errors in clinical settings. Most medical errors are performed/perpetrated by patients, and educating them promotes their ethical practice. Errors are related to insufficient knowledge, and bridging the gaps promotes ethical practice among the students (Bay & Sey-Sawo, 2018).
Another expected outcome is increased interprofessional collaboration among the students. The teaching strategies promote cohesion and group work, enabling students to learn and exercise interprofessional collaboration skills. Another outcome is decreased stress levels and improved motivation among the students. Ethical dilemmas are stressful, and solving these ethical dilemmas promotes students’ relaxation, promotes their confidence, and reduces hesitancy in practice.
1.3 Management and Motivation
Learner management is an important consideration in ensuring learners implement what they learn in clinical settings. It entails understanding and shaping learners to achieve the desired outcomes. The experiential learning theory is the most applicable in promoting motivation and effective classroom management in healthcare settings (Clark, 2018). The theory occurs in stages, and a student can enter and exhibit any stage of learning at any time.
The first stage is diverging; the learner incorporates different perspectives in a situation. This stage requires an educator to teach students the required courses and expose them to various scenarios such as case studies and the solutions implemented in those scenarios. It also requires the educator to model the required behavior (Dornan et al., 2019). In this stage, the educator also familiarizes the learner with the various requirements in the specific settings.
The second stage is assimilation, where the learner develops abstract concepts, observes and reflects on what was learned, and uses the knowledge to solve current problems. The educator should recognize behavior, understand its origin and help students portray the required behavior (Dornan et al., 2018). The next stage is converging, where the learner utilizes learned knowledge to solve current and emerging problems.
The last stage, accommodating, entails solving new challenges with learned knowledge. This stage shows learner confidence and mastery when they solve unique and challenging issues as they arise (Clark, 2018). Educators set effective limits for students, and students use their learned knowledge and skills to achieve the set limits by the educator. The limits should be challenging but achievable (Dornan et al., 2019).
Challenging but achievable goals are challenging, but they are also a source of motivation for the students. More so, Educators understand the stage of learning and provide resources to ensure success in those stages of learning. Providing them with exercises that fit their learned knowledge promotes intellectual and professional growth.
Learner motivation helps students work hard to achieve rather difficult targets. Learners’ morale may be affected by background situations, the complexity of the course, environmental factors, and lack of motivation. Motivating learners is an important intervention. According to behavioral theorists, the best motivation should be diversified and multimodal (Brown, 2019). Learners can get used to motivation and weans off the desired behavior over time.
The best motivation interventions are psychological rewards such as telling students congratulations. Psychological rewards take time to wean off and produce the required behavior for a long time. Other rewards are monetary in spaced events to ensure retention of the behavior without students developing entitlement to reward after a behavior. Another intervention to promote motivation is providing challenging tasks. Challenging tasks require effort and attention. Succeeding in these challenging tasks motivates students to take up other roles and improves their confidence in practice.
Promoting group/teamwork is another motivation strategy. According to Vasalampi et al. (2018), peers motivate each other by showing them that the tasks are manageable. Peers interact more and are more open to each other. Thus, promoting teamwork increases their interactions and morale.
Individuals increase their morale when they actively participate in teamwork and succeed. Forming healthy interactive relationships with students is an evidence-based motivation strategy (Farmer, 2018). Interacting with students and providing assistance where needed boosts their morale. They feel supported and are not afraid or demotivated to take up challenging tasks. Thus, interacting with learners and encouraging them motivates them.
1.4 Assessment Strategies
Learner assessment is integral in determining their understanding of the concepts. It also helps determine the current gaps and helps educators plan for other education sessions (Immomen et al., 2019). Assessment helps determine students’ weaknesses to aid in planning to manage them. Assessments thus help improve teaching programs. Learner assessments can be divided into two categories: assessing knowledge learned and applying the knowledge learned.
The differences lie in where and when the assessments are delivered to the students. The former strategy assesses patients retained knowledge while the latter assesses the student’s ability to apply learned knowledge. When choosing an assessment strategy, factors include validity, fairness, and equity (equal chances and access to information), reliability (can be used repeatedly in the specific settings), and practicality (appropriateness for content, learner, and environment). Other factors include authenticity, transparency, sufficiency (covers all the vital areas), and the applied learning models (Immonen et al., 2019).
The most applicable learner assessment methods for ethics in clinical settings are presentations, written assignments, practical exercises, and strategic questioning (Immonen et al., 2019). Clinical settings are challenging because of limited room for practical examinations. Strategic questioning is a continuous assessment technique that evaluates learners’ understanding of the topic or question (Merisier et al., 2019). Strategic questioning digs deeper into an individual’s thinking to elicit a certain response.
These questions help the educator gauge the learner’s understanding and help them strategically plan their lessons to fit their students’ needs. Strategic questions in classrooms help get different students’ perspectives and help appreciate and accommodate the learners’ diversity (Merisier et al., 2019). When using open-ended questions, students present their views and the learned principles in the classroom. Discussions may arise from these questions and accommodate personal differences.
Written assignments are a widely applied assessment strategy, where students exhibit their competencies through completing written assignments. These assignments are well sculptured to reflect the various values required from the students (Kofou, 2019). Educators can prepare assignments requiring students to portray ethical reasoning or ethical principles and evaluate their understanding of applying the ethical principles.
This assessment strategy assesses the understanding majorly of concepts taught. They also assess the student’s organization and present concepts and ideas (Kofou, 2019). These assignments measure the outcome of learning and the learner differences. Written assignments can also be done in group work, requiring cohesion and teamwork among students.
Presentations are similar to written assignments but slightly defer from written tasks in that presentations require students to present their information to the classroom. Presentations are shorter and are more focused on explaining or convincing, but they also require deep searching and integration of coordination, effective skills, and confidence (Oh et al., 2019).
In clinical settings, presentations can be done with patients making learning more effective. However, educators should understand the implications and institutional policies and guidelines. Presentations can be done in groups or individually, depending on the purpose and size of content involved. The educator assesses the depth of content, relevance, adherence to instructions, confidence, and the coverage of the overall goals.
Practical exercises are also common in clinical settings. They are applied in various areas such as assessing nursing procedures such as wound dressing, delivery, immunization, family planning counseling, and many other nursing procedures (Günay & Kılınç, 2018). The nurse can provide the student with ethical scenarios and solve them under supervision.
The method assesses the understanding and students’ ability to apply knowledge. Practical exercises differ from other assessments in that preceptors evaluate the adherence to procedure and application of concepts. In these exercises, cultural differences are appreciated and respected. Nursing ethics is a vital topic, and practical exercises measure the impact of the lessons.
Educators should understand that learners get bored with repetition. Educators should not rely on one assessment method. Other assessment methods available are applicable in classroom settings, such as continuous sit-in exams and online exams. Preceptors should consider preparing clear rubrics that show the expected outcomes and content quality and share it with students when preparing the assessments. They should also consider the appropriateness of these methods and their ability to elicit the required outcomes (Günay & Kılınç, 2018).
Learners are entitled to feedback, and these tests should inform future planning for other lessons. Lastly, the learning institution should recognize the methods (Chinai et al., 2018). The educator should communicate the results to the institution alongside a personalized report for further evaluation and management. The expected outcomes are that learners understand the content taught and apply the learned concepts to solve problems as they arise. Ethics prepare students to be professionally responsible nurses with better interpersonal relationships and quality decision-making, improving the quality of care in a healthcare setting.
1.5 Barriers to Learning
The clinical environment is a unique environment designed for increasing practical knowledge and experiencing the hospital environment. The environment is hostile to ‘classroom-like’ learning hence the need for adequate preparation. Understanding these barriers helps educators design ways to minimize these barriers and promote student learning.
The barriers affecting learning in this environment include time limitation, limited space/ deficient facilities, lack of student motivation, insufficient knowledge among educators, nurses/ personnel uncooperativeness (Günay & Kılınç, 2018). The barriers affect the selected teaching and assessment strategies and greatly influence the teaching plan. The teaching plan should be designed to accommodate these barriers. Students in the clinical areas are assigned roles making it difficult to learn. Educators are also often busy, and matching their time with the time students are available can be difficult.
Limited space is another barrier to learning. Clinical areas have limited spaces, unlike classroom environments. Learning as a whole group is difficult, and the educator is forced to divide students into groups or prefer group learning and assessment strategies. In addition, healthcare staff may be uncooperative. Involving nurses in these learning tasks can thus e hardly be avoided. Students are not allowed to perform tasks without supervision, and thus nurses’ involvement is integral.
Nurses have heavy workloads, and balancing the heavy workload with teaching students can be difficult. Learning and assessment strategies should have little nurses’ involvement and should thus be more group work (Hashemiparast et al., 2019). Deficient knowledge can be attributed to inadequate preparation. Thus, educators should understand the course, audience, and settings to prepare effective management, motivation, teaching, and assessment strategies for their success in clinical teaching.
Additional information required includes the number of students requiring ethical education. In addition, the organizational culture, students’ access to patient information, institutional regulations, and availability of resources. Access to patients and patient information is the mainstay in clinical learning (West et al., 2018). The clinical settings are unpredictable, and the mentioned could be further influence the teaching plan. Thus, minor adjustments might be necessary to accommodate these deficiencies when the information is available.
Effective clinical learning depends on planning and preparation. Nursing ethics is taught in class and extensively utilized in healthcare settings; students should learn ethics to help apply them in clinical settings. These settings provide more experience and exposure to the students. Ethics taught in clinical settings require several considerations, as outlined above.
The behavioral learning theory is the most applicable in clinical teaching, emphasizing behavior change in nursing practice. Some aspects of social learning and cognitive learning theories can also be incorporated into clinical teaching. The various teaching strategies include problem-based learning, case studies, and role-playing.
Multimodal teaching using the different methods is also integral to enhancing understanding and diversity. Classroom and student management and motivation are essential in these settings. The experiential learning theory provides a framework for student management and motivation using evidence-based strategies. Assessment strategies applicable to clinical settings are strategic questioning, written assignments, presentations, and practical exercises. Proper educator preparation enhances successful teaching and learning. Assessments help understand learners’ weaknesses and strengths and help the educator plan future lessons.
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Church, F. C. (2021). Active Learning: Basic Science Workshops, Clinical Science Cases, and Medical Role-Playing in an Undergraduate Biology Course. Education Sciences, 11(8), 370. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11080370
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Ghazi, C., Nyland, J., Whaley, R., Rogers, T., Wera, J., & Henzman, C. (2018). Social cognitive or learning theory use to improve self-efficacy in musculoskeletal rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 34(7), 495-504. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593985.2017.1422204
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Effective Lesson Planning
Assessment Strategies and Complete Course Plan Scoring Guide
|Apply appropriate theory to optimize the teaching experience and learner outcomes.||Does not apply theory to optimize the teaching experience and learner outcomes.||Applies inappropriate theory to a teaching experience and learner outcomes.||Applies appropriate theory to optimize the teaching experience and learner outcomes.||Applies appropriate theory to optimize the teaching experience and learner outcomes; provides academic rationale for why and how theory is applied.|
|Apply knowledge of methods of thinking, learning, and communicating to specific learning situations.||Does not apply knowledge of methods of thinking, learning, and communicating to specific learning situations.||Inaccurately applies knowledge of methods of thinking, learning, and communicating to specific learning situations.||Applies knowledge of methods of thinking, learning, and communicating to specific learning situations.||Applies knowledge of methods of thinking, learning, and communicating to specific learning situations; references evidence-based research as the rationale for application.|
|Integrate appropriate teaching strategies, techniques, and outcomes for nursing and healthcare education for use in specific situations and populations.||Does not integrate learning strategies, techniques, and outcomes for nursing and healthcare education for use in specific situations and populations.||Integrates inappropriate learning strategies, techniques, and outcomes for nursing and healthcare education for use in specific situations and populations.||Integrates appropriate teaching strategies, techniques, and outcomes for nursing and healthcare education for use in specific situations and populations.||Integrates appropriate learning strategies, techniques, and outcomes for nursing and healthcare education for use in specific situations and populations; identifies assumptions upon which the choices are based.|
|Incorporate evidence-based best practices to enhance learner motivation in a selected learning environment and format.||Does not integrate evidence based best practices for classroom and learner management.||Integrates inappropriate practices for classroom and learner management.||Integrates evidence-based best practices for classroom and learner management.||Integrates evidence-based best practices for classroom and learner management; considers conflicting data and other perspectives.|
|Consider barriers to learning when designing and developing educational programs.||Does not consider barriers to learning when designing and developing educational programs.||Considers inapplicable barriers to learning and/or misses applicable barriers for consideration when designing and developing educational programs.||Considers barriers to learning when designing and developing educational programs.||Considers barriers to learning when designing and developing educational programs; identifies areas of uncertainty, knowledge gaps, and/or additional information that would be needed in order to gain a more complete understanding.|
|Integrate cultural competence in nursing and healthcare educational offerings.||Does not integrate cultural competence in nursing and healthcare educational offerings.||Inappropriately attempts to integrate cultural competence in nursing and healthcare educational offerings.||Integrates cultural competence in nursing and healthcare educational offerings.||Integrates cultural competence in nursing and healthcare educational offerings; evaluates the relevance, currency, sufficiency, and trustworthiness of the evidence for these choices.|
|Develop a teaching plan for a selected topic that demonstrates flow, cohesion, and application of best practices.||Does not develop a teaching plan for a selected topic.||Develops a teaching plan for a selected topic that fails to demonstrate flow, cohesion, or application of best practices.||Develops a teaching plan for a selected topic that demonstrates flow, cohesion, and application of best practices.||Develops a teaching plan for a selected topic that demonstrates flow, cohesion, and application of best practices across the entirety of the document.|
|Design appropriate and meaningful assessments for a course.||Does not design appropriate and meaningful assessments for a course.||Designs assessments for a course; assessments are not most appropriate fit for learning outcomes, content, population, or environment.||Designs appropriate and meaningful assessments for a course.||Designs appropriate and meaningful assessments for a course; assessments reflect application of best practice for the content, population, and environment of the course.|
|Support identified position with effective written communication using appropriate spelling, grammar, punctuation and mechanics, and APA style and formatting.||Does not support identified position with effective written communication using appropriate spelling, grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and APA style and formatting.||Supports the identified position with ineffective written communication using inappropriate spelling, grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and APA style and formatting.||Supports identified position with effective written communication using appropriate spelling, grammar, punctuation and mechanics, and APA style and formatting.||Supports the identified position with error-free written communication using pristine spelling, grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and APA style and formatting.|
Create a complete teaching plan for your course that fuses together all previous course components and includes the addition of a detailed assessment plan.
Your complete teaching plan should provide:
- An overview of the course topic, environment, and learner population.
- An explanation of the learner outcomes for the course as well as the learning theory or theories that are the foundation of the course.
- An incorporation of evidence-based best practices to enhance learner motivation in your selected learning environment and format.
- An integration of appropriate teaching strategies, techniques, and learner outcomes for nursing and healthcare education for use in specific situations and populations and of evidence-based best practices for classroom and learner management.
- A consideration of barriers to learning when designing and developing educational programs and an integration of cultural competence in nursing and healthcare educational offerings.
- A logical, well-designed assessment plan that addresses these points:
- A selection of assessment types that are most appropriate for the content, environment, and learner population.
- An explanation of how you will evaluate whether or not learning outcomes were accomplished in the course, and how assessments will demonstrate that learners have learned as intended.
- An analysis of how your selected assessment types support cultural competence as well as fit for learners with varied learning styles.
Organize your plan as follows:
- Title page.
- Table of Contents.
- An overview of your course (topic, setting audience, and so on).
- Learning Theories and Diversity (Assessment 1).
- Teaching Strategies (Assessment 2).
- Management and Motivation (Assessment 3).
- Assessment Strategies (designed in this Assessment).
Your completed plan should be clear and flow together well. It should show cohesion, understanding, and the application of best practices, and all writing should be professional and free of errors.
- Format: 12-point Times New Roman or Arial font, double-spaced in Microsoft Word.
- Length: 12â€“15 pages, plus a title page and a references page.
- Use correct APA format, including running head, page numbers, and a title page.
- Use and cite at least 10 references, and at least five of them from peer-reviewed journals that are not required for this course.
- Writing should be free of grammar and spelling errors that distract from content.
By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:
- Competency 1: Appraise the influence of learner’s culture, gender, and experiences on teaching and learning.
- Apply knowledge of methods of thinking, learning, and communicating to specific learning situations.
- Consider barriers to learning when designing and developing educational programs.
- Integrate cultural competence in nursing and healthcare educational offerings.
- Competency 2: Apply educational theory and evidence-based teaching practices when implementing teaching strategies.
- Apply appropriate theory to optimize the teaching experience and learner outcomes.
- Competency 3: Apply a variety of teaching strategies appropriate to diverse learner needs, content, and desired learner outcomes.
- Incorporate evidence-based best practices to enhance learner motivation in a selected learning environment and format.
- Integrate appropriate teaching strategies, techniques, and outcomes for nursing and healthcare education for use in specific situations and populations.
- Design appropriate and meaningful assessments for a course.
- Competency 4: Integrate best practices for classroom management.
- Integrate evidence-based best practices for classroom and learner management.
- Competency 5: Communicate in a manner that is scholarly, professional, and consistent with the expectations of a nursing education professional.
- Develop a teaching plan for a selected topic that demonstrates flow, cohesion, and application of best practices.
- Support identified position with effective written communication using appropriate spelling, grammar, punctuation and mechanics, and APA style and formatting.