NURS-FPX6107 Assessment 2 Course Development and Influencing Factors
Course Development and Influencing Factors
Courses require extensive review to ensure they are feasible to the existing curriculum, add to knowledge and skills, and meet the regulatory agencies’ requirements. The primary goal of a new course is to equip students with the right skills and knowledge for their roles. The process also requires stakeholders’ perspectives, including financiers, institution leaders, researchers, educators, students, and regulatory agencies. A curriculum design is the deliberate and purposeful systematic organization of a curriculum. This essay reviews the process of course development and inclusion in the curriculum and its influencing factors.
An Appropriate Course to Include in a Selected Curriculum.
The chosen course is trauma and emergency and perinatal emergency care. NUR 660 and NUR 670 courses equip nurses to care for these diverse patients but ignore emergencies. The course will be a comprehensive course encompassing trauma, emergency, and perinatal emergencies. The course will equip the FNP with knowledge and skills to manage emergencies and trauma patients and provide care to women perinatally, including abortion care.
As noted in many healthcare settings, women’s reproductive health, from family planning to childbirth and health, is vital and constitutes a considerable percentage of hospitals’ workload and resource allocation (Mehta et al., 2018). Much attention and emphasis should be placed on them, especially in advanced nursing roles.
Every nurse has basic midwifery training, and equipping them with emergency management skills will prepare them to care for all populations adequately. According to Mehta et al. (2018), no woman should die during childbirth, hence the need for more professionals prepared to handle perinatal emergencies. FNPs are APRNs who should be equipped with skills to save lives in emergencies and provide adequate obstetric care in obstetric emergencies.
The rationale for Selecting the Course
New courses in curriculums add to existing knowledge suitable for the specific role. Adding courses to a curriculum requires in-depth considerations of time, appropriateness, desired outcomes, and professional roles (Feller, 2018). The course added must also be relevant to the FNP’s practice. FNP roles and responsibilities include responding to patients in primary care, prescribing medications for all conditions, and referring patients with critical care needs.
Trauma and emergencies in various situations occur in many settings, including primary care. These include poisoning, precipitate labor, accidents, hypoglycemia, and convulsions, raising the need for quick individual resuscitation and the delivery of emergency care (Fawcetts et al., 2019). In these cases, life depends on the nurse’s swift action, and death and morbidities such as cerebral palsy in children may arise without proper care. FNPs work in many settings, such as independent practice and remote areas, where there are no physicians, clinical nurse midwives, or emergency and trauma care nurses.
Fathala (2020) shows that about 20 million women experience unsafe abortions, while 5 million women are hospitalized yearly due to abortion-related complications; over 90% of these women result from poor access to skilled labor, and 4-13% of maternal deaths result from unsafe abortion. In addition, about 300,000 women (about 800 women each day) die from pregnancy complications each year (Helps et al., 2020).
Registered obstetricians/midwives can refer to various other conditions such as tuberculosis, hyperemesis, and malaria can be referred to licensed obstetricians/ midwives. Still, emergencies cannot be referred to safely, hence the need to equip them with skills to manage these emergencies. There are professionals, clinical nurse midwives, responsible for them, but they are unavailable in many settings, hence the need to train more advanced practice nurses. In addition, the FNPs are available in various settings, such as community settings, whereas it is difficult to find other specialists, such as trauma and emergency nurses, in community settings.
Suggested Topical Outline for a Course
The chosen course will entail various topics to enhance skills and knowledge of the selected curriculum. The topics to include in the course will include the Management of common emergency conditions such as hypoglycemia, heart failure, respiratory collapse, convulsions, and internal hemorrhage. Management of trauma injuries such as ballistic injuries, chest and abdomen injuries, head and spinal injuries, and burns.
The last topic is the Management of common obstetric emergencies such as spontaneous and induced abortion and abortion complications, antepartum and postpartum hemorrhages, shoulder dystocia, cord prolapse, baby asphyxia, and non-reassuring fetal status, eclampsia, and amniotic fluid emboli. The complications in trauma and emergency and the perinatal period are not limited to these conditions.
The three topics and subtopics will equip Family Nurse to provide care to these special populations, saving lives. The subtopic topics may also be varied to include the specific populations most common conditions. These may include topics such as malaria. According to Bauserman et al. (2019), malaria affects over 125 million pregnancies each year, leading to preventable deaths and morbidity in infants and mothers. The topics can thus be considered to ensure they address all populations adequately.
Stakeholders and Collaboration Methods with the Stakeholders
The new course will require vast considerations to be included in the curriculum. Other considerations include the availability of resources and stakeholders. The stakeholder is the school leadership, regulatory agencies, other institutions, educators, various involved departments (community and reproductive health nursing and medical-surgical departments), and students. Leaders control how finances are used in an organization and also avail them.
Curriculums require much funding during development, evaluation, and implementation hence the need for collaborating with them. The best method is a written proposal and a professional presentation to the leaders regarding changes (course) to the funds and support required. A different professional presentation and copy of the proposal would be delivered to the regulatory agencies for approval.
According to Fowler et al. (2021), professional presentations help deliver the main points to an audience within a short time and services to convince them to gain buy-in to the idea presented. Professional meetings with all the involved stakeholders help gain perspectives (Jacobsen et al., 2018). These meetings are vital in exchanging these perspectives, brainstorming ideas, and increasing social interactions. They also improve social interactions, further improving collaboration when discussing the new course.
Priestley and Philippou (2018) show that creating a social platform such as a private social media group can help with quick consultations and discussions even after work hours on the curriculum. These platforms also allow members to communicate fast and to all members, hence swift action. Alternatively, a physical board such as the hospital notice board may help circulate information to all involved professionals, increasing collaboration.
The Impact of Internal Factors such as organizational processes, curriculum committees, and internal review bodies on curriculum design
Organizations have existing traditions that affect curriculum design. For example, Goodwin University takes its nursing students to clinical areas far from the school. A significant requirement is advancing students to be ready to travel great distances for clinical experiences. Many institutions offer online learning, while others use blended learning- classroom and online, and others offer strictly classroom learning.
These organizational processes greatly influence how learners and educators interact. These traditions also include acceptable teaching methods and practices (such as giving students notes versus telling them to read from coursebooks). The selected methods must thus align with these instructions, significantly affecting how a curriculum design is prepared and implemented.
Curriculum committees are integral in discussing curriculum designs. Besides discussing the curriculum content, they discuss the time, appropriateness, available materials, and meeting requirements of regulatory agencies. The curriculum committee and internal review bodies generally review and recommend improving the curriculum to ensure it is feasible with the students and learning methods.
External Factors Such As Funding, Stakeholders, And Regulatory And Accrediting Agencies Effects on the Curriculum Design
Curriculum design influences how educators educate, train, and deliver formal learning experiences. Funding is an essential aspect of curriculum design. Curriculum development involves professionals and many processes to develop and implement. Accrediting agencies require various fees for approval of the course. Curriculum course materials vary greatly: lectures, books, and nursing simulations (such as shadow health and sentinel city). These simulations and other resources require money, and the availability of funds determines the methods of teaching and learning inculcated (Carrillo, 2020)
Regulatory and accrediting agencies are essential influencers of curriculum design. They dictate the acceptable teaching and learning methods and the practices that must be involved. They determine the appropriate learning environments (clinical and physical/online classes) for the specific courses. They also determine the additional requirements for a complete mastery of content (Carrillo, 2020). For example, for the NUR 680 FNP IIII, regulatory agencies require at least 240 hours of direct clinical practice (Goodwin University, n.d.). The regulatory agencies thus influence how the timing and setting are essential in curriculum design.
Internal and external stakeholders are vital individuals in curriculum design. The educators, students, researchers, the institution’s leadership, and internal stakeholders collectively determine the most appropriate teaching and learning methods (Carillo, 2020). They also ensure the curriculum design aligns with the mission and vision of the institution and introduces new knowledge and skills set to the institution.
External stakeholders, such as external professionals and the government, present information (perspectives) from external that influence the chosen methods. They also present information from research, such as best practices in teaching and learning. Internal and external stakeholders are thus important factors in curriculum design. Failure to involve these stakeholders leads to failure of the process and misuse of scarce resources.
Mission, Philosophy, And Framework of The Program And Parent Institution’s Impact On Curriculum Design
Institutions develop all courses to align with their missions and philosophy. They ensure that the courses in the curriculum help achieve their mission and philosophy. The mission of Goodwin University is to educate a diverse student population in a dynamic environment that aligns education, commerce, and community. The mission and philosophy require the institution to develop curriculums that incorporate all students and meet educational, commerce, and community needs.
The education philosophy, Universal Design for Learning (UDL), ensures the university utilizes best practices universally applicable and acceptable (Goodwin University, n.d.). The methods chosen must be compatible with diverse student populations. Students vary in age, and these populations all require methods that auger with them.
The framework of the program significantly determines the curriculum design. The course objectives and strategies to achieve these objectives determine how these courses are taught and evaluated and, subsequently, the curriculum design (Carillo, 2020). Thus, the program’s mission, philosophy, framework, and parent institutions greatly influence the curriculum design.
Collaboration Between External and Internal Stakeholders Throughout The Curriculum Development
Additive and compensatory types of collaboration are best for collaboration between internal and external stakeholders throughout the process of curriculum development in this case. Ahn (2019) explains that compensatory collaboration is where parties discuss the problem under review and exchange ideas and perspectives, which are collectively used to improve a process or achieve results.
The curriculum development process will include various changes and incorporate various perspectives from the different stakeholders. It will require all professionals from the beginning and will thus utilize compensatory collaboration. Tsakitzidis (2018) explains that in additive collaboration, different parties play different roles which build on each other to produce results. For example, in this curriculum development process, the internal stakeholders will prepare the proposed course proposal while external stakeholders, such as donors, will provide funding for the processes.
The government and regulatory bodies will review the curriculum to ensure it meets the required standards and is relevant to the nursing role. The group is also responsible for approving or rejecting the proposal. Thus, the curriculum development process will utilize more than one type of collaboration. The collaboration will be for a quality, feasible, resource-sensitive, holistic, and successful curriculum development process.
The FNP program at Goodwin University could benefit from the addition of a course on trauma and emergency care and perinatal emergencies. The course will equip the students with skills and knowledge to handle these emergencies when they arise in settings without the respective clinical nurse specialists. When developing and implementing the curriculum, there are various considerations, such as internal and external stakeholders, collaboration strategies, and regulatory agencies. Curriculum developers should also ensure they understand and fulfill all the basic requirements from the institution for the successful addition of the course to the selected curriculum.
Ahn, J. A. (2019). Strategic Marketing Collaboration in the Restaurant Industry (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University). http://rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1562687792974114
Bauserman, M., Conroy, A. L., North, K., Patterson, J., Bose, C., & Meshnick, S. (2019, August). An overview of malaria in pregnancy. In Seminars in perinatology (Vol. 43, No. 5, pp. 282–290). WB Saunders.https://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semperi.2019.03.018
Carrillo, M. E. (2020). The Curriculum Development Process for Teachers of Diverse Learners: Influences of Internal and External Factors (Doctoral dissertation, New Mexico State University). https://www.proquest.com/openview/2f9f56c0e414924ba22af3ecf086cd36/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y
Fathalla, M. F. (2020). Safe abortion: The public health rationale. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 63, 2–12.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2019.03.010
Fawcett, K., Gerber, N., Iyer, S., De Angulo, G., Pusic, M., & Mojica, M. (2019). Common conditions requiring emergency life support. Pediatrics In Review, 40(6), 291-301. https://doi.org/10.1542/pir.2017-0331
Feller, F. (2018). Transforming nursing education: A call for a conceptual approach. Nursing Education Perspectives, 39(2), 105–106. https://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000187
Fowler, B., Cardon, P. W., Marshall, B., & Elder, K. (2021). What do conference attendees want from academic presentations? A study of an information systems professional organization. Issues in Information Systems, 22(3). https://doi.org/10.48009/1_iis_2021_96-106
Helps, A., Leitao, S., Greene, R., & O’Donoghue, K. (2020). Perinatal mortality audits and reviews: past, present and the way forward. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 250, 24-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.04.054
Jacobsen, M., Eaton, S. E., Brown, B., Simmons, M., & McDermott, M. (2018). Action research for graduate program improvements: A response to curriculum mapping and review. Canadian Journal of Higher Education/Revue canadienne d’enseignement supérieur, 48(1), 82-98. https://doi.org/10.7202/1050843ar
Mehta, S. T., Pandya, V., Yadav, P. A., & Raval, B. M. (2018). A Retrospective Study of Maternal & Perinatal Outcome in Obstetrical Emergencies at Tertiary Care Center in Ahmedabad. National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine, 9(6).
Priestley, M., & Philippou, S. (2018). Curriculum making as social practice: Complex webs of enactment. The Curriculum Journal, 29(2), 151–158. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585176.2018.1451096
Tsakitzidis, G. (2018). Learning to collaborate interprofessionally in health care (Doctoral dissertation, University of Antwerp). https://repository.uantwerpen.be/docman/irua/59681c/150392.pdf.
Faculty of Nursing
COURSE OUTLINE FOR NUR 699: Trauma and Emergency and perinatal emergencies
TIME ALLOCATED: 35 hours+ 35 hours of clinical experience
The course will equip students with the knowledge and skills to deliver and coordinate care for emergencies and trauma care.
Expected learning outcomes of the course
By the end of this course, the leader should be able to:
- Incorporate principles of trauma and emergency care into primary care
- Explain the various traumas and their management
- Explain the various emergencies and their management
- Explain the various perinatal emergencies and their management
- Identify the resources available for the management of trauma and emergencies
- Participate in the management of trauma and emergencies
- Emergency conditions
- Perinatal emergencies
- Clinical practice
Trauma: Fractures, Ballistic injuries, chest and abdomen injuries, head and spinal injuries,
Emergency Care: Hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, heart failure, respiratory collapse, torrential hemorrhage, unconscious patient, choking, poisoning.
Perinatal emergencies: Preeclampsia and eclampsia, convulsion, placental abruption, antepartum and postpartum hemorrhages, cord prolapse and cord presentation, fetal distress, birth asphyxia, preterm birth, and maternal exhaustion,
Lesson 1. Fractures
Lesson 2. Ballistic injuries
Lesson 3: Chest and abdomen injuries
Lesson 4: Head and spinal injuries
Lesson 5: Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia
Lesson 6: Heart failure and heart attack
Lesson7: Respiratory collapse
Lesson 8: torrential hemorrhage, unconscious patient, choking, poisoning.
Lesson 9: Preeclmpsia and eclampsia, convulsion
Lesson 10: Placental abruption, antepartum and postpartum hemorrhages
Lesson 11: Cord prolapse and cord presentation
Lesson 12: Fetal distress, birth asphyxia, preterm birth
Lesson 13: Maternal exhaustion and ruptured uterus
Lesson 14, 15, 16: Clinical practice in the emergency and trauma department
Learning and Teaching Methods
Lectures: blended learning
Discovery learning through individual reading assignments
Computer, LCD, Projector
All students must attend all classes and take cats and examinations at the appointed time without fail. Failure to do a CAT or an exam will be awarded zero total marks.
Continuous Assessment Tests: 30%
75% and above A
49% and below E
Core Reading Material for the course
Richhariya, D. (2018). Textbook of Emergency & Trauma Care. () JP Medical Ltd.
Jacob, A. (2018). A comprehensive textbook of midwifery & gynecological nursing (2nd Ed.). Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers.
Course Development and Influencing Factors Scoring Guide
|Describe an appropriate course to include in a selected curriculum.||Does not describe an appropriate course to include in a selected curriculum.||Describes a course to include in a selected curriculum, but the course is not appropriate, or the description is unclear or incomplete.||Describes an appropriate course to include in a selected curriculum.||Describes an appropriate course to include in a selected curriculum and explains where in the curriculum it would best fit.|
|Provide a rationale for adding a course to a selected curriculum.||Does not provide a rationale for adding a course to a selected curriculum.||Provides a rationale for adding a course to a selected curriculum, but the rationale is incompletely described or is inappropriate.||Provides a rationale for adding a course to a selected curriculum.||Provides a rationale for adding a course to a selected curriculum and cites relevant sources to support the inclusion.|
|Suggest a topical outline for a course to be added to a selected curriculum.||Does not suggest a topical outline for a course to be added to a selected curriculum.||Suggests a topical outline for a course to be added to a selected curriculum, but the outline is incomplete or somehow flawed.||Suggests a topical outline for a course to be added to a selected curriculum.||Suggests a topical outline for a course to be added to a selected curriculum and shows how the topics relate to other courses in the curriculum.|
|Explain with whom and how faculty members would collaborate when considering a new course within a selected curriculum.||Does not explain how faculty members would collaborate when considering a new course within a selected curriculum.||Explains with whom and how faculty members would collaborate when considering a new course within a selected curriculum, but the explanation is incomplete or somehow flawed.||Explains with whom and how faculty members would collaborate when considering a new course within a selected curriculum.||Explains with whom and how faculty members would collaborate when considering a new course within a selected curriculum and provides a rationale for the collaborations.|
|Explain and describe how internal factors such as organizational processes, curriculum committees, and internal review bodies affect curriculum design.||Does not explain and describe how internal factors such as organizational processes, curriculum committees, and internal review bodies affect curriculum design.||Explains and describe how internal factors such as organizational processes, curriculum committees, and internal review bodies affect curriculum design, but the explanation is incomplete or otherwise flawed.||Explains and describe how internal factors such as organizational processes, curriculum committees, and internal review bodies affect curriculum design.||Explains and describe how internal factors such as organizational processes, curriculum committees, and internal review bodies affect curriculum design, and provides examples.|
|Explain and describe how external factors such as funding, stakeholders, and regulatory and accrediting agencies affect curriculum design.||Does not explain and describe how external factors such as funding, stakeholders, and regulatory and accrediting agencies affect curriculum design.||Explains how external factors such as funding, stakeholders, and regulatory and accrediting agencies affect curriculum design, but the explanation is incomplete or otherwise flawed.||Explains and describe how external factors such as funding, stakeholders, and regulatory and accrediting agencies affect curriculum design.||Explains and describe how external factors such as funding, stakeholders, and regulatory and accrediting agencies affect curriculum design, and provides examples.|
|Explain how the mission, philosophy, and framework of a program and parent institution impact curriculum design.||Does not explain how the mission, philosophy, and framework of a program and parent institution impact curriculum design.||Explains how the mission, philosophy, and framework of a program and parent institution impact curriculum design, but the explanation is incomplete or otherwise flawed.||Explains how the mission, philosophy, and framework of a program and parent institution impact curriculum design.||Explains how the mission, philosophy, and framework of a program and parent institution impact curriculum design, and provides examples.|
|Describe the type of collaboration between external and internal stakeholders that will be needed throughout a process of curriculum development.||Does not describe the type of collaboration between external and internal stakeholders that will be needed throughout a process of curriculum development.||Describes the type of collaboration between external and internal stakeholders that will be needed throughout a process of curriculum development, but the description is incomplete or somehow inadequate.||Describes the type of collaboration between external and internal stakeholders that will be needed throughout a process of curriculum development.||Describes the type of collaboration between external and internal stakeholders that will be needed throughout a process of curriculum development, and explores the consequences of not collaborating.|
|Write effectively using appropriate spelling, grammar, punctuation and mechanics, and APA style and formatting.||Does not write effectively using appropriate spelling, grammar, punctuation and mechanics, and APA style and formatting.||Writes using appropriate spelling, grammar, punctuation and mechanics, and APA style and formatting, but with multiple errors and lapses.||Writes effectively using appropriate spelling, grammar, punctuation and mechanics, and APA style and formatting.||Writes effectively using appropriate spelling, grammar, punctuation and mechanics, and APA style and formatting. Supports conclusions by citing relevant sources.|
NURS-FPX6107 Assessment 2 Instructions: Course Development and Influencing Factors
Develop a 6-8 page course design to be included in the selected nursing curriculum chosen in Assessment 1.
Note: Each assessment in this course builds on the work you completed in the previous assessment. Therefore, you must complete the assessments in this course in the order in which they are presented.
According to Iwasiw and Goldenberg (2020), curriculum development in nursing education is a creative process intended to produce a unified, meaningful curriculum. It is an ongoing activity in nursing education, even in schools of nursing with established curricula (Iwasiw & Goldenberg, 2020). This definition of curriculum development can be extended into the education of nurses in facilities other than a school of nursing. Nurses are also educated in clinical facilities and in many arenas providing continuing education units.
Billings and Halstead (2019) explain that many institutions that provide nursing education are reviewing how they can provide education that is consistent with their missions, provide for diversity in education, and be forward-thinking as they prepare for the future, while still maintaining a cost-effective, quality program.
Influencing factors fall into two categories: internal and external factors. External factors examine the larger environments that are outside of the organization. The internal factors influence the curriculum within organization (Keathing, 2014). The educator needs to have an understanding of the internal and external factors influencing curricular development.
This assessment provides you with an opportunity to outline the design of a course that will become part of the curriculum you selected and evaluated in the first assessment.
It is important for a nurse educator, whether they are working in academia or clinical education, to use the frame factors model when developing curriculum, revising curriculum, or in the process of the development of new curriculum (Keating, 2014). Whether in the academic or clinical setting, there are factors that will influence the nurse educator’s way in the development of nursing curriculum. The completion of a needs assessment outlines the internal and external factors to help the nurse educator make the proper decisions for next steps in the curriculum continuum.
Billings, D. M., & Halstead, J. A. (2019). Teaching in nursing: A guide for faculty (6th ed.). Saunders Elsevier.
Iwasiw, C. L., & Goldenberg, D. (2020). Curriculum development in nursing education (4th ed.). Jones and Bartlett.
Keating, S. B. (2014). Curriculum development and evaluation in nursing (3rd ed.). Springer Publishing Company.
Using the same nursing curriculum you selected in Assessment 1, design a course that could be added to the curriculum.
As you prepare to complete this assessment, you may want to think about other related issues to deepen your understanding or broaden your viewpoint. You are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of your professional community. Note that these questions are for your own development and exploration and do not need to be completed or submitted as part of your assessment.
- How might the policies for continuing education credits in a clinical setting or school impact curriculum?
- How might these requirements affect the design of health-related curricula?
- What criteria are used for incorporating continuing education units and continuing medical education into the design of the curriculum?
Design a course to be included in your selected nursing curriculum. In your course design:
- Describe an appropriate course to include in a selected curriculum.
- Provide a rationale for adding a course to a selected curriculum.
- Suggest a topical outline for a course to be added to a selected curriculum.
- Explain with whom and how faculty members would collaborate when considering the new course within a selected curriculum design.
- Explain and describe how internal factors such as organizational processes, curriculum committees, and internal review bodies affect curriculum design.
- Explain and describe how external factors such as funding, stakeholders, and regulatory and accrediting agencies affect curriculum design.
- Explain how the mission, philosophy, and framework of the program and parent institution impact curriculum design.
- Describe the type of collaboration between external and internal stakeholders that will be needed throughout a process of curriculum development.
You will use this assessment to complete Assessment 3. Be sure to incorporate the feedback you receive before adding this assessment to Assessment 3.
- References: Include references from at least two peer-reviewed journals that are not listed in the resource activities, cited in proper APA format.
- Length of design: The course design should be 6-8 pages in length, not including the title page and the reference page, and must follow proper APA style and formatting.
- Course outline: Include the course outline as an appendix. The appendix will not be included in the page count for the assessment.
- Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.