Personality Disorders Paper

Personality disorders refer to a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by deeply rooted, egosyntonic behavioral traits that significantly diverge from the accepted and expected norms of one’s culture (Ekselius, 2018). Traits are repetitive and distinguish an individual in an array of personal and social contexts. Personality is mapped according to five dimensions, namely agreeableness, neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience (Widiger et al., 2018).

Personality Disorders Paper

The age of onset of personality disorder is ordinarily during late adulthood or adolescence. The etiology is multifactorial. The DSM-5 categorizes personality disorders into three clusters, namely A, B, and C. In the subsequent sections of this paper, paranoid personality disorder, its treatment options, and the importance of therapeutic relationships shall be discussed.

Paranoid Personality Disorder

A paranoid personality disorder is a cluster A personality disorder. Cluster A is characterized by odd, eccentric behavior with subsequent difficulty forming interpersonal relationships (Lewis & Ridenour, 2020). The DSM-5 criteria for diagnosis of a paranoid personality disorder require the presence of at least 4 of the following; pervasive distrust of others, suspicious of infidelity in sexual partners, holding grudges, unjustified suspicion concerning loyalty of friends, unjustified fear that information might be used against them, unjustified fear that others are harming or deceiving them, excessive reactions to perceived attacks, and perception of benign remarks as concealed humiliations (American Psychiatric Association, 2022).

Treatment of paranoid personality disorder is mainly by psychotherapy. However, medical therapy with mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antidepressants is indicated for symptomatic treatment. An individual with a paranoid personality disorder often lacks insight. Therefore, a therapist must approach this patient with the principal aim of helping them recognize disordered thinking patterns to embrace treatment. One such therapeutic modality is cognitive behavioral therapy.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is a form of psychotherapy that has been proved to be effective in treating paranoid personality disorder. Cognitive behavioral therapy allows individuals with paranoid personality disorder to reorganize their destructive thought patterns and beliefs. Consequently, the paranoia is reduced with resultant improvement in the formation of interpersonal relationships. Finally, cognitive behavioral therapy equips them with skills and better ways to deal with their emotions hence maintaining interpersonal relationships.

Therapeutic Relationship in Psychiatry

The role of the therapeutic relationship in psychiatry cannot be overstated. Most psychiatric conditions, as well as treatment options, require interaction between the healthcare provider and the patient. Therapeutic relationship forms the foundation of psychotherapy. Through this relationship, patients develop insight and participate willingly in treatment. The therapeutic relationship enables patients to develop trust with the healthcare providers hence sharing intimate thoughts, emotions, and beliefs freely and complying with treatment (Hartley et al., 2020).

Finally, an excellent therapeutic relationship has been associated with a reduction in depression and anxiety as well as healthcare costs (Hartley et al., 2020). Sharing a diagnosis of paranoid personality disorder with an individual, family, or group can be quite challenging. For instance, individuals with paranoid personality disorders have excessive mistrust, and therefore it can worsen paranoia and make it difficult for them to accept the disorder and be willing to participate in treatment. Consequently, a therapist should establish a therapeutic relationship, communicate effectively, develop trust, create confidence and reassure the patients to facilitate an effective sharing of the diagnosis.


Personality disorders are characterized by deep-rooted behaviors and traits that are contrary to social and cultural norms. These disorders are diagnosed based on the DSM-5 criteria. A paranoid personality disorder is characterized by overwhelming mistrust. Psychotherapy is the principal treatment of personality disorders. However, it requires a therapeutic relationship. Finally, the sources used are considered scholarly since they are peer-reviewed journal articles from the recommended sites and have been published within the last five years.


Personality Disorders Paper Instructions

Succinctly, in 1-2 pages, address the following: Briefly describe the personality disorder you selected, including the DSM-5-TR diagnostic criteria. Explain a therapeutic approach and a modality you might use to treat a client presenting with this disorder. Explain why you selected the approach and modality, justifying their appropriateness. Next, briefly explain what a therapeutic relationship is in psychiatry. Explain how you would share your diagnosis of this disorder with the client in order to avoid damaging the therapeutic relationship. Compare the differences in how you would share your diagnosis with an individual, a family, and in a group session. Support your response with specific examples from this weeks Learning Resources and at least three peer-reviewed, evidence-based sources. Explain why each of your supporting sources is considered scholarly. Attach the PDFs of your sources.