Type 2 Diabetes Prevention and Management Intervention Analysis

Type 2 Diabetes Prevention and Management Intervention Analysis

Type 2 diabetes is a major health concern in the US. It is responsible for high mortality and morbidity rates in the US. The health concern is much felt among the African American population, where the condition is most prevalent. About 9.4 % of the total population in the US have diabetes, and 95% of this have type 2 diabetes (Cunningham et al., 2018). Racial and ethnic disparities are seen in Type 2 diabetes.

According to Cunningham et al. (2018), 12.7% of the total African Americans have type 2 diabetes. In addition, African Americans with type 2 diabetes report higher diabetes-related distress and are more likely to be hospitalized following type 2 diabetes complications. With the rising cases of type 2 diabetes in this population, nursing practice is affected by the increasing workload and case complexity.

Type 2 diabetes also poses significant patient safety and quality care delivery problems. Hence, the problem is essential to nursing practice. Therefore, the type 2 diabetes health issue among the African American population is a severe issue of concern, with a need to develop a health intervention to address the issue. This essay analyzes the factors that influenced the development of a type 2 diabetes prevention and management intervention to address the type 2 diabetes crisis among African Americans.

Leadership and Change Management Strategies

Leadership and change management strategies greatly influenced the development of type 2 diabetes prevention and management intervention. Shared decision-making and open and accessible communication are the primary leadership and change management strategies that helped the development of the intervention (Pieterse et al., 2019).

These strategies guided gathering relevant information from other healthcare providers, healthcare leadership, and African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Shared decision-making also prevents change resistance among the relevant stakeholders of the intervention. Open and free communication enabled all stakeholders to contribute and express their concerns without limitations or fear. Good communication improves interprofessional communication and is integral for quality healthcare decisions. It also ensures informed decision-making, enhancing change acceptance and implementation of change interventions (Pieterse et al., 2019).

A critical analysis of the information gathered helped decide the best intervention- a community-based type 2 diabetes prevention and management program. Every stakeholder was accorded an equal chance in decision-making, ensuring that the decisions were the best agreed upon by all the stakeholders.

Nursing ethics was also an important consideration in the development of the intervention. Ethical consideration is an essential prerequisite in any healthcare intervention development and implementation. The nursing ethical principles considered include autonomy through information, informed consent for the type 2 diabetes patients involved, respect for persons, and beneficence (Venkatesan, Dongre & Ganapathy, 2018). The intervention intends to improve the quality of life for type 2 diabetes patients in the African American population; hence, it was crucial to involve them.

Consulting the members of this population has some advantages. It helped understand the causes, aggravating factors, and the actual magnitude of the problem from the patients’ perspective. It also helped receive possible solutions from their suggestions on managing and preventing type 2 diabetes. After gathering and considering their proposed solutions, these African Americans will likely participate in the intervention. While gathering information from this population, we ensured respect for persons and that the patients gave the information freely and voluntarily.

Strategies for Communication and Collaboration

Collaboration is integral to ensuring the success of every healthcare intervention. The type 2 diabetes prevention and management program intervention requires the input of all the interprofessional team members, social workers, community health workers and volunteers, and more importantly, the type 2 diabetes patients. Effective collaboration and communication are needed for these teams to work together towards the success of the intervention.

According to Rosen et al. (2018), recognizing and rewarding collaborative behavior is a collaborative strategy that motivates the patient group to participate in the communication process. Setting clear and mutual goals and objectives will help collaborative work and help achieve the common goals for the intervention. Clarity of goals also helps stakeholders avoid deviations that waste time and stay committed to achieving objectives (Rosen et al., 2018).

Simple psychological rewards such as recognizing patients managing their conditions effectively, watching their diets, and adequately adhering to medication are effective strategies to ensure that African American type 2 diabetes patients follow the program. Using appropriate tools and channels for communication is an effective strategy for a team’s success.

The best communication channels for the African American population are print media and the use of community radio. News about the program intervention will be shared using print media such as pamphlets and flyers distributed in the community, community social institutions, and local healthcare institutions. Understanding the patient group is essential in determining the best communication and collaborative strategies.

Contributions of State Board Nursing Practice Standards and/or Organizational or Governmental Policies

To be effective, all healthcare interventions should comply with organizational, local, state, and federal government policies and regulations. Several government policies and acts influenced the development of the proposed type 2 diabetes intervention. One is the nursing practice act by the state board that regulates the nurses’ scope of practice and professional standards.

The US National Diabetes Prevention Program also helped understand the scope of nursing practice in diabetes healthcare, thus ensuring that the proposed intervention complies with the policy stipulations. We also consulted the American Diabetes Association for the guidelines for effective management of type 2 diabetes (Gruss et al., 2019). The standards of medical care as proposed by the American Diabetes Association were also considered (American Diabetes Association, 2022).

The HIPAA act on media use and patient safety information helped determine the best strategies to ensure the type 2 diabetes prevention and management intervention program will ensure patient information safety and compliance with healthy social media activities. The act has assured that patients’ information is safe and that healthcare providers use social media platforms to acceptable standards.

Under the national information technology initiative, the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research (AHQR) stipulated effective healthcare technology use, especially electronic health records and passing information using electronic media. These acts, regulations, and federal agencies helped shape and produce an effective strategy to manage and prevent type 2 diabetes health issues. These standards and regulations effectively produce desirable health outcomes since the intervention will ensure patient safety and care quality as guided by these standards and regulations.

Type 2 Diabetes Prevention and Management Program Intervention on Addressing Care Quality, Patient Safety, and Costs on the Individual and the System

The proposed type 2 diabetes prevention and management program intervention is expected to significantly improve care quality for the African American population, enhance patient safety, and reduce individual and healthcare costs. The interprofessional team will use the intervention and the community health workers to promote health among the African American population, thus producing desirable health outcomes and improved care quality.

According to Frontoni et al. (2020), care quality is a significant determinant of health outcomes and the quality of life for type 2 diabetes patients. The intervention will enhance care quality since it will encourage the care providers and the interprofessional team to promote health, create awareness on type 2 diabetes prevention, and teach effective type 2 diabetes management, improving care quality.

Additionally, research shows that type 2 diabetes patients, more so African Americans, have poor health outcomes due to poor adherence to management practices and failure to seek medical attention when required (Venkatesan et al., 2018). The intervention will encourage African Americans to seek medical attention and adhere to treatment and management, thus improving care quality.

Furthermore, the proposed intervention will address patient safety for type 2 diabetes patients in the African American population. The intervention was developed in compliance with HIPAA guidelines for patient safety. For instance, the care providers will use electronic health records to store and share patient information while maintaining high levels of safety.

For patient safety protection, personal patient information will not be shared openly using electronic media. The type 2 diabetes management and prevention program will teach the diabetes patients safe diabetic management practices such as glucose tests, thus encouraging patient safety.

The cost of type 2 diabetes treatment and management for individual patients and the healthcare system will also be reduced by implementing the proposed intervention. Type 2 diabetes treatment and management are one of the costliest non-communicable diseases. It exerts considerable financial pressure on the individual, their family, and the healthcare system. High costs are incurred in the treatment of diabetes complications and diabetic-related hospitalizations.

However, the prevention and management program will reduce these costs by preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in the African American population at a high risk of the disease. The program will also teach type 2 diabetes patients about effective diabetic management, thus preventing them from diabetic complications that can bring financial burden to the individual, the family, and the healthcare system.

Technology, Care Coordination, and Community Resources in Type 2 Diabetes Prevention and Management Program

Healthcare technology has infiltrated all hospital sectors and is associated with improved efficiencies in healthcare institutions. Technology, especially social platforms and online resources, helps reach many people bypassing geographical barriers and space limitations. Technology will help provide resources to a bigger audience and ensure effective remote consultation. Similarly, the intervention considered the impact of technology in addressing the type 2 diabetes crisis.

First and foremost, the program news will be delivered to African Americans using technology platforms. It is worth noting that the African American population is one of the health populations identified as minority and underserved. Healthcare providers will bridge the gap through technology and ensure that more African Americans can access type 2 diabetes care.

Also, the program proposes using telehealth to provide diabetic care to this population. Telehealth will enhance follow-up of type 2 diabetes among African Americans, thus reducing type 2 diabetes complications and promoting health outcomes and quality of life.

Care coordination is an essential consideration in healthcare interventions. Care coordination activities will be enhanced between the interprofessional team, the type 2 diabetes patients, the social workers, and the community health workers for the success of the intervention. Preparing distinct roles for every healthcare provider also helps avoid confusion, increase accountability and responsibility, and improve interprofessional collaboration (McLendon, Wood & Stanley, 2019).

Care coordination will also ensure the intervention’s immediacy, preventing unnecessary delays that lead to diabetes complications. In addition, it will provide high-quality decisions that incorporate inputs from all healthcare disciplines.

The role of community resources was integral in the development of the intervention. Community centers and social institutions will be the major centers for implementing the intervention. The African Americans often meet in these centers; thus, it will be easier to find them there. More so, community open spaces and recreational centers will be used for physical exercise and fun activities to help African Americans reduce weight and maintain a healthy weight. Another vital community resource is the community social groups (Galuska et al., 2018). The community groups will enhance our program team’s more accessible contact with African Americans.

Conclusion

Healthcare issues such as type 2 diabetes require constant reevaluations and quality improvement projects to maintain high-quality care, accommodate patient needs of various populations, improve patient safety, and reduce healthcare expenses. Healthcare leaders should thus focus on current best evidence-based practices and implement them in addressing healthcare issues among different populations. Type 2 diabetes is a global health issue requiring attention from healthcare institutions. A community-based type 2 diabetes prevention and management program will help the African American population prevent and manage type 2 diabetes. Healthcare technology, care coordination, and community resources are essential for managing type 2 diabetes in this population. Healthcare institutions should collaborate with the community and the state and federal governments to contain the rising number of type 2 diabetes patients.

References

American Diabetes Association. (2022). Introduction: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2022. Diabetes care45(Supplement_1), S1-S2. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc22-Sint

Cunningham, A. T., Crittendon, D. R., White, N., Mills, G. D., Diaz, V., & LaNoue, M. D. (2018). The effect of diabetes self-management education on HbA1c and quality of life in African-Americans: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Health Services Research, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3186-7

Frontoni, E., Romeo, L., Bernardini, M., Moccia, S., Migliorelli, L., Paolanti, M., Ferri, A., Misericordia, P., Mancini, A & Zingaretti, P. (2020). A decision support system for diabetes chronic care models based on general practitioner engagement and EHR data sharing. IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine8, 1-12., https://doi.or/10.1109/JTEHM.2020.3031107.

Galuska, D. A., Gunn, J. P., O’Connor, A. E., & Petersen, R. (2018). Addressing childhood obesity for type 2 diabetes prevention: Challenges and opportunities. Diabetes Spectrum31(4), 330-335. https://doi.org/10.2337/ds18-0017

Gruss, S. M., Nhim, K., Gregg, E., Bell, M., Luman, E., & Albright, A. (2019). Public Health Approaches to Type 2 Diabetes Prevention: the US National Diabetes Prevention Program and Beyond. Current Diabetes Reports, 19(9). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-019-1200-z

McLendon, S. F., Wood, F. G., & Stanley, N. (2019). Enhancing diabetes care through care coordination, telemedicine, and education: Evaluation of a rural pilot program. Public Health Nursing36(3), 310-320. https://doi.org/10.1111/phn.12601

Pieterse, A. H., Stiggelbout, A. M., & Montori, V. M. (2019). Shared decision-making and the importance of time. JAMA, 322(1), 25-26. https://doi.org/doi:10.1001/jama.2019.3785

Rosen, M. A., DiazGranados, D., Dietz, A. S., Benishek, L. E., Thompson, D., Pronovost, P. J., & Weaver, S. J. (2018). Teamwork in healthcare: Key discoveries enabling safer, high-quality care. American Psychologist, 73(4), 433–450. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000298

Venkatesan, M., Dongre, A. R., & Ganapathy, K. (2018). A community-based study on diabetes medication nonadherence and its risk factors in rural Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Community Medicine: Official Publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine43(2), 72. https://doi.org/10.4103%2Fijcm.IJCM_261_17