Research Literature Review: Picot Question on Child Obesity Intervention

Picot Question on Child Obesity Intervention

PICOT question: For children aged between 7 and 14 years (P), does parental lifestyle choice (I) increase obesity instances (O) compared to nutrition education offered in schools (C).

According to Pratt & Skelton (2018), childhood obesity is a common problem in developing and developed countries. It impacts the psychological and physical health of the child. Childhood obesity affects the child’s self-esteem, academic performance, and social and emotional well-being (Williams et al., 2018). Children who are overweight are likely to stay obese even in adulthood and develop other diseases like cardiovascular diseases and diabetes at a younger age.

Research Literature Review: Picot Question on Child Obesity Intervention

According to Bohnert et al. (2020), multiple factors contribute to obesity in children, most of which are not directly related to one given factor. Lifestyle preferences and environmental and cultural factors all contribute to the development of obesity in children across the globe (Gray et al., 2018).

In general, a prevalent belief is that being obese and overweight is a result of fat and caloric intake. Other studies show obesity due to excessive intake of sugar through soft drinks, a decline in physical activities, and increased portion size are some of the common factors that contribute to the rising rate of obesity for children worldwide.

The Impact of Family Dynamics on Obesity in Children

There is too much mounting evidence linking family dynamics to overweight and obesity in children (Williams et al., 2018). According to recent research, parental life choices such as the food they eat and exercise routine have a role in the child’s development and the things they embrace (Chai et al., 2019). Parents who have zero interest in exercising are likely to make poor food choices.

Therefore, they are likely to bring up children who are obese based on the type of food they eat and the general environment (Sanyaolu et al., 2019). In such families, the food choices that the children will make are highly inclined to the things they learn from their parents.

Exercise helps the body to burn excess fat and keep the muscle rejuvenated. It also improves the quality of life and makes one feel stronger (Pratt & Skelton 2018). This minimizes the risks of building weight and guarantees the person is flexible and can effectively handle various situations.

On the other hand, parents who do not engage in physical exercise are not likely to teach their children or rather allow them to exercise (Bohnert et al., 2020). Lack of exercise for children can be associated with multiple side effects.

A child who is not consistent in exercises often has difficulty socializing with peers or even engaging in playing activities that involve outdoor adventures (Gray et al., 2018). Such a habit limits the children from using the energy gathered from the food they eat. In turn, this energy builds additional weight in the children, affecting their mobility on regular days.

The type of food people eat reflects directly on how their bodies will develop and look. For children, being overweight opens opportunities for chronic conditions to enter, which makes it difficult for them to enjoy quality life like their peers (Sanyaolu et al., 2019).

Poor family dynamics is also another issue that affects the children’s weight gain leading to obesity is the family’s economic dynamics. Parents with financial challenges also experience issues related to obesity and overweight in children (Chai et al., 2019).

Lack of financial stability pushes parents to do things that are not necessarily healthy to keep their children happy. Therefore, they are likely to introduce their children to eating junk foods as a way to show things are normal. Socio-cultural variables also influence obesity development.

Food is frequently used as a reward, a tool for controlling people, and as part of socializing in our society. These food-related activities may stimulate the formation of unhealthy food interactions, raising the risk of obesity (Gray et al., 2018). They also tend to avoid engaging their children in manual activities or even helping with household chores.

In early childhood, the parent is responsible for what happens to the children. This includes monitoring what the children eat, how they interact with others, and the kind of responsibilities they learn (Williams et al., 2018). However, because the family has a financial problem, parents compliment the difference by ensuring they strain to provide the best they can afford to ensure the children do not realize the difference.

The Role of Parents in Increasing the Current Issue of Childhood Obesity

A recent study indicates that parents have a role to play in the development period of their children. Obesity is a fairly persistent trait, however, it’s difficult to tell if past obesity drives current obesity or whether a persistent underlying and unobservable cause influences obesity at all times, comparable to endogeneity (Bohnert et al., 2020). Obesity is influenced by socioeconomic position, parental education, and single motherhood, and these factors stay largely stable through time.

However, the processes underlying these connections are unknown (Pratt & Skelton 2018). From a policy standpoint, measures to prevent obesity would be futile if obesity was solely determined by previous obesity and socioeconomic circumstances. On the other hand, interventions are successful in reducing childhood obesity.

Similarly, therapies have proved effective in lowering prenatal weight increase and adult obesity (Chai et al., 2019). This shows that it is possible to control obesity in both children and adults with the correct therapies and that obesity is determined not only by previous obesity and social circumstances but also by more intricate family interactions.

When children experience weight and obesity problems from an early age, they are likely to carry on with the problem to adulthood. Obese children tend to dislike some foods, and focusing more on taking them is unhealthy, which develops into a difficult habit to change (Sanyaolu et al., 2019).

The availability of nutritious meals and regular exposure to them is crucial for building preferences and overcoming food hate. Evidence suggests that families who eat together consume more nutritious foods (Gray et al., 2018). Therefore, mealtime structuring is vital.

Furthermore, eating out or watching television while eating is linked to a higher fat intake. The way parents feed their children is also important. The author discovered that authoritative feeding (determining which meals are supplied, allowing the child to choose, and offering a rationale for healthy options) is linked to good food cognitions and consumption. Surprisingly, authoritarian restrictions on junk food are linked to an increased appetite for unhealthy foods and increased weight.


Children become a reflection of what their parents are and what they constantly see. Family dynamics and other environmental factors play a significant role in children’s health. Regarding obesity in children, family plays a critical role, impacting how the child develops and perceives life. Children’s habits at a young age are likely to remain the same through adulthood. Therefore, it is critical for the patent to ensure they introduce their children to better life habits to avoid nurturing weight-related issues in the future.


  • Bohnert, A. M., Loren, D. M., & Miller, A. L. (2020). Examining childhood obesity through the lens of developmental psychopathology: Framing the issues to guide best practices in research and intervention. American Psychologist75(2), 163.
  • Chai, Li Kheng, Clare Collins, Chris May, Katherine Brain, Denise Wong See, and Tracy Burrows. “Effectiveness of family-based weight management interventions for children with overweight and obesity: an umbrella review.” JBI Evidence Synthesis 17, no. 7 (2019): 1341-1427. doi: 10.11124/JBISRIR-2017-003695
  • Gray, L. A., Alava, M. H., Kelly, M. P., & Campbell, M. J. (2018). Family lifestyle dynamics and childhood obesity: evidence from the millennium cohort study. BMC Public Health18(1), 1-15.
  • Pratt, K. J., & Skelton, J. A. (2018). Family functioning and childhood obesity treatment: a family systems theory-informed approach. Academic Pediatrics18(6), 620-627.
  • Sanyaolu, A., Okorie, C., Qi, X., Locke, J., & Rehman, S. (2019). Childhood and adolescent obesity in the United States: a public health concern. Global Pediatric Health6, 2333794X19891305.
  • Williams, A. S., Ge, B., Petroski, G., Kruse, R. L., McElroy, J. A., & Koopman, R. J. (2018). Socioeconomic status and other factors associated with childhood obesity. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine31(4), 514-521. DOI:

Research Literature Review: Picot Question on Child Obesity Intervention Instructions

 Create a 3-5 page submission in which you develop a PICO(T) question for preeclampsia and evaluate the evidence you locate, which could help to answer the question. Introduction PICO(T) is an acronym that helps researchers and practitioners define aspects of a potential study or investigation. It stands for: •	P - Patient/population/problem. •	I - Intervention. •	C - Comparison (of potential interventions, typically). •	O - Outcome(s). •	T - Time frame (if time frame is relevant). The end goal of applying PICO(T) is to develop a question that can help guide the search for evidence (Boswell & Cannon, 2015). From this perspective, a PICO(T) question can be a valuable starting point for nurses who are starting to apply an evidence-based model or EBPs. By taking the time to precisely define the areas in which the nurse will be looking for evidence, searches become more efficient and effective. Essentially, by precisely defining the types of evidence within specific areas, the nurse will be more likely to discover relevant and useful evidence during their search. When applying the PICO(T) approach, the nurse can isolate the interventions of interest and compare to other existing interventions for the evidenced impact on the outcome of the concern. You are encouraged to complete the Vila Health PICO(T) Process activity before you develop the plan proposal. This activity offers an opportunity to practice working through creating a PICO(T) question within the context of an issue at a Vila Health facility. These skills will be necessary to complete Assessment 3 successfully. This is for your own practice and self-assessment and demonstrates your engagement in the course. Reference Boswell, C., & Cannon, S. (2015). Introduction to nursing research. Jones & Bartlett Learning. Professional Context As a baccalaureate-prepared nurse, you will be responsible for locating and identifying credible and scholarly resources to incorporate the best available evidence for the purposes of enhancing clinical reasoning and judgement skills. When reliable and relevant evidence-based findings are utilized, patients, health care systems, and nursing practice outcomes are positively impacted. PICO(T) is a framework that can help you structure your definition of the issue, potential approach that you are going to use, and your predictions related to the issue. Word choice is important in the PICO(T) process because different word choices for similar concepts will lead you toward different existing evidence and research studies that would help inform the development of your initial question. When writing a PICO(T)-formatted research question, you want to focus on the impact of the intervention and the comparison on the outcome you desire. Scenario For this assessment, please use a healthcare issue of interest from your current or past nursing practice. If you do not have an issue of interest from your personal nursing practice, then review the optional Case Studies presented in the resources and select one of those as the basis for your assessment. Instructions For this assessment, select a health care issue of interest and apply the PICO(T) process to develop the research question and research it. Your initial goal is to define the population, intervention, comparison, and outcome. In some cases, a time frame is relevant and you should include that as well, when writing a question you can research related to your issue of interest. After you define your question, research it, and organize your initial findings, select the two sources of evidence that seem the most relevant to your question and analyze them in more depth. Specifically, interpret each source\'s specific findings and best practices related to your issues, as well explain how the evidence would help you plan and make decisions related to your question. If you need some structure to organize your initial thoughts and research, the PICOT Question and Research Template document (accessible from the \"Create PICO(T) Questions\" page in the Capella library\'s Evidence Based Practice guide) might be helpful. In your submission, make sure you address the following grading criteria: •	Define a practice issue to be explored via a PICO(T) approach. Create a PICO(T)-formatted research question •	Identify sources of evidence that could be potentially effective in answering a PICO(T) question (databases, journals, websites, etc.). •	Explain the findings from articles or other sources of evidence as it relates to the identified health care issue. •	Explain the relevance of the findings from chosen sources of evidence to making decision related to a PICO(T) question. •	Communicate using writing that is clear, logical, and professional with correct grammar and spelling using the current APA style. •	 Additional Requirements Your assessment should meet the following requirements: •	Length of submission: Create a 3-5-page submission focused on defining a research question and interpreting evidence relevant to answering it. •	Number of references: Cite a minimum of four sources of scholarly or professional evidence that support your findings and considerations. Resources should be no more than 5 years old. •	APA formatting: Format references and citations according to the current APA style. Portfolio Prompt: Remember to save the final assessment to your ePortfolio so that you may refer to it as you complete the final capstone course. Competencies Measured By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria: •	Competency 1: Interpret findings from scholarly quantitative, qualitative, and outcomes research articles and studies. •	Explain the findings from articles or other sources of evidence that are relevant to the health care issue. •	Competency 2: Analyze the relevance and potential effectiveness of evidence when making a decision. •	Identify sources of evidence that could be potentially effective in answering a PICO(T) question. •	Explain the relevance of the findings from chosen sources of evidence to making decisions related to a PICO(T) question. •	Competency 3: Apply an evidence-based practice model to address a practice issue. •	Define a practice issue to be explored via a PICO(T) approach and develop a PICO(T)-formatted research question. •	Competency 5: Apply professional, scholarly communication strategies to lead practice changes based on evidence. •	Organize content so ideas flow logically with smooth transitions; contains few errors in grammar/punctuation, word choice, and spelling. Apply APA formatting to in-text citations and references exhibiting nearly flawless adherence to APA format.