Analysis of Community Assessment
Emphasizing on preventive care has emerged as a profound approach to safeguarding public health and safety. Global and national healthcare agencies establish short-and-long-term goals, objectives, and strategic plans for addressing chronic and emerging healthcare concerns, including chronic and infectious diseases. Alongside establishing goals, objectives, and plans, healthcare organizations rely on benchmarks to assess their performance consistent with the established goals.
Healthy People 2030 is an ideal example of a concerted effort from healthcare organizations like the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) to bolster preventive care in the United States. In this sense, it identifies public health priorities and builds on the knowledge gained over the past decades to help individuals, organizations, and communities in improving health and well-being.
Further, Healthy People 2030 provides objectives and data regarding various health priorities, including heart disease, stroke, overweight and obesity, respiratory diseases, diabetes, cancer, addiction, and hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). By developing objectives and data on these topics, individuals and health organizations can understand preventive interventions.
However, some health concerns remain unaddressed despite the efforts of services and partnerships involved in interdisciplinary preventive initiatives and interventions. An example of unaddressed health concerns is obesity.
Outcomes and Goals from Healthy People 2030 Relating to Obesity
Healthy People 2030 identifies adult obesity as a profound health concern in the United States because it affects about 2 in 5 adults. This data signifies an alarming situation, considering the interplay between obesity and other life-threatening conditions and health problems.
According to Healthy People 2030 (2021), obesity is a risk factor for many health problems, including heart disease, stroke, various types of cancer, and type 2 diabetes. The knowledge and data on obesity prevalence enable Healthy People 2030 to establish objectives and desired outcomes and recommend culturally appropriate programs and policies for promoting healthy diets, physical activity, and other aspects of healthy behaviors, including sedentary lifestyles.
The Healthy People 2030’s objectives for preventing and managing obesity and its subsequent effects include; reducing the proportion of children and adolescents with obesity (NWS-04), reducing the proportion of adults who do not know they are prediabetes (D-02), and reducing the proportion of adults with obesity (NWS-03).
Other objectives relevant to this health concern are increasing the proportion of women who had a healthy weight before pregnancy (MICH-13) and increasing the proportion of health care visits by adults with obesity that includes nutrition, counseling on weight loss, or physical activity.
Regarding adult obesity, Healthy People 2030 established a target of 36% of adults aged 20 years and over with obesity. This target is below, the most recent data that indicated that 41.8% of adults aged 20 years and over had obesity in 2017-2020.
Healthy People 2030 relied upon data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) to calculate the prevalence of adult obesity and set an achievable target for this health concern (Healthy People 2030, 2021). NHANES surveyed 16,211 people where 9254 (51.9%) people participated in interviews, and 8704 (48.8%) completed the health examination component of the survey.
What similarities are apparent between the gathered data and generated data?
Data gathering and generation are essential aspects that enable healthcare organizations to understand health concerns affecting communities and establish data-driven targets and benchmarks for improving population health and well-being.
According to Pastorino et al. (2019), healthcare organizations utilize big data to transform clinical care and public health. In this sense, big data entails voluminous datasets with sizes beyond the ability of typical database software tools to capture, store, manage, and analyze. The big data concept justifies the rationale for effective data gathering and generation interventions.
In the context of understanding the prevalence of obesity among adults, there are apparent similarities between gathered and generated data. In this sense, the two sets of data represent findings from the target population or community affected by the health concern.
For instance, gathered data emanates from quantitative and qualitative data collection methodologies and represents people’s views, diagnoses, lived experiences, and perceptions of the health issue. On the other hand, generated data entails simplified and synthesized versions of the collected data to aid an in-depth understanding of the health concern’s prevalence, incidences, and community perceptions.
Therefore, the two datasets serve a similar goal of explaining the magnitude of the problem, its prevalence among the susceptible community, and people’s strengths and weaknesses that promote or hinder their response to the health problem.
What differences are apparent between the gathered and generated data?
Although gathered and generated data regarding adult obesity complement each other and serve a similar objective of improving understanding of the health problem’s prevalence in the susceptible community, they differ in multiple ways. In this sense, gathered data entails raw findings on people’s opinions, reactions to the health issue, and understanding of the problem.
It is essential to note that researchers and data collection agencies use quantitative and qualitative approaches to obtain big data on the identified community health issue. On the other hand, generated data involves more insightful datasets with numerical results, patterns, and predictions. As a result, healthcare organizations use generated data to inform decisions, set objectives, and establish benchmarks for addressing adult obesity.
What are the weaknesses and strengths of this community?
A high prevalence of adult obesity is dependent on the community’s susceptibility to poor social determinants of health (SDOH). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] (2019) defines social determinants of health as “conditions in the places where people live, learn, work, and play that have a wide range of health and quality-of-life risks and outcomes.” These conditions include healthcare access and quality, education access and quality, social and community context, economic stability, and neighborhood and built environment.
In the context of adult obesity, community weaknesses include a lack of supportive policies in sectors like transport, urban planning, food processing, distribution, and marketing, unavailability of healthy foods, limited access to physical activity opportunities, and sedentary lifestyles (World Health Organization, 2021).
Equally, Ayala-Marin et al. (2020) add low income, unemployment, drug and substance abuse, and poor stress management as risk factors for adult obesity. These factors increase the community’s susceptibility to obesity and its subsequent effects, including a high prevalence of chronic conditions like cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.
The inverse is true regarding community strengths toward obesity prevention and management of healthy weight. In this sense, high income, high-level education attainment, presence of supportive policies in the environment and urban planning, frequent community need assessment, improved access to physical activity opportunities, availability of healthy foods, and individual willingness to engage in exercise enable communities to address obesity and related health problems, including heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and respiratory complications.
Equally, the presence of professional-led health promotion programs like education and awareness initiatives empowers community members and improves their knowledge and awareness of self-management approaches, reducing the rate of adult obesity prevalence.
Improvement Areas in this Community
Although community strengths translate to reduced rates of adult obesity and obesity-related complications, the prevailing weaknesses in the target population present areas for improvement. For instance, people’s low-level education attainment, low income, unemployment, limited access to healthy foods, lack of self-management knowledge and awareness, and reduced opportunities for physical activity are priority areas for policymakers and healthcare organizations.
One of the most profound approaches to improving these areas is strengthening the role of community-based health organizations and healthcare professionals. According to Pearce et al. (2019), community-based healthcare professionals can effectively implement the 5As model when preventing obesity.
This framework entails asking or inquiring about risk factors, assessing the level of risk factors, health literacy, and readiness to change, agreeing on collective goals, assisting individuals in managing obesity by developing care plans, and arranging support systems to achieve goals and maintain change.
Besides strengthening the role of community-based health organizations and healthcare professionals, it is possible to address adult obesity through policies and reforms regarding neighborhoods and the built environment. Tseng et al. (2018) contend that policies that support physical activity and built-environment changes and reforms regarding food and beverage are essential in managing adult objectives.
These policies include revamping sidewalks, regulating food marketing, partnering with private gymnasia, opening new supermarkets in areas with lower access to healthy foods, and improving public transport infrastructure to incorporate opportunities for physical activity.
Adult obesity is the leading cause of chronic and non-communicable diseases like cancer, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and respiratory conditions. In turn, these obesity-related conditions contribute to premature deaths, compromised quality of life, prolonged hospitalization, and increased care costs.
Although Healthy People 2030 has established goals and objectives for addressing adult obesity, this problem remains unaddressed due to community weaknesses, including low-level education attainment, poor housing, infrastructural constraints, low income, and policy deficiencies.
As a result, healthcare organizations and professionals can collaborate with policymakers to address these weaknesses and leverage gathered and generated data to implement evidence-based interventions, including policies and reforms targeting physical activity, built-environment, food, and beverage sectors.
Ayala-Marín, A. M., Iguacel, I., Miguel-Etayo, P. D., & Moreno, L. A. (2020). Consideration of social disadvantages for understanding and preventing obesity in children. Frontiers in Public Health, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00423
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Social determinants of health. https://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/index.htm
Healthy People 2030. (2021). Overweight and obesity. https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/overweight-and-obesity
Pastorino, R., De Vito, C., Migliara, G., Glocker, K., Binenbaum, I., Ricciardi, W., & Boccia, S. (2019). Benefits and challenges of big data in healthcare: An overview of the European initiatives. European Journal of Public Health, 29(3), 23–27. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckz168
Pearce, C., Rychetnik, L., Wutzke, S., & Wilson, A. (2019). Obesity prevention and the role of hospital and community-based health services: A scoping review. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4262-3
Tseng, E., Zhang, A., Shogbesan, O., Gudzune, K. A., Wilson, R. F., Kharrazi, H., Cheskin, L. J., Bass, E. B., & Bennett, W. L. (2018). Effectiveness of policies and programs to combat adult obesity: A systematic review. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 33(11), 1990–2001. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-018-4619-z
World Health Organization. (2021, June 9). Obesity and overweight. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight
Analysis of Community Assessment Instructions
Discuss aspects of a health concern not being addressed despite the efforts of services and partnerships involved and describe the ultimate outcome(s) or goal(s) from Healthy People 2020 relating to that specific health concern.
Answer the following questions to assist in data interpretation:
What similarities are apparent between the data that were gathered and the data that were generated?
What differences are apparent between the data that were gathered and the data that were generated?
What are the weakness and strengths of this community?
In what areas is improvement needed in this community?
The assignment should be written in an APA-formatted essay. The essay should be between 1500 and 2000 words in length and include at least two scholarly sources other than provided materials.
M2 Assignment UMBO â€“ 1, 2, 4
M2 Assignment PLG â€“ 2, 5, 6
M2 Assignment CLO â€“ 1, 2, 3
Assignment Instructions and Specifications
Submitting Your Work
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