Cannabis Use Disorder

Introduction: There is a prevalent belief that cannabis is a safe recreational drug that ought not to be controlled or deemed prohibited. Marijuana is now the most widely used illegal substance in the United States. Over 12% of persons aged 12 and older reported usage in the previous year and significantly increased rates of use amongst teenagers (Volkow et al., 2022). Inhalation is the most typical method of intake.

Cannabis Use Disorder

Regular and heavy marijuana use throughout puberty is of significant concern, as it is connected with an increased chance of adverse outcomes. This information sheet discusses marijuana’s negative effects, the hazards associated with its use, and the importance of the interprofessional team in detecting and managing marijuana abuse.

Broad topic: Cannabis Use Disorder

Narrow topic: Long-term consequences of marijuana abuse in teenagers and management by an interprofessional team

Points developed: risk factors to marijuana abuse, how marijuana affects our organ systems, risks associated with marijuana abuse, and the role of the interprofessional team in the management of marijuana abuse.

Topic support: Marijuana is a pale green to grey-colored shredded leaves and flowering of the Cannabis sativa bush that are mostly smoked combined with stalks and seeds as cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and blunts, that is marijuana folded in a cigar’s tobacco-leaf wrapper.

Hashish is a similar product made from the resin of marijuana flowers that is often smoked alone or in combination with tobacco but may also be consumed orally. Marijuana may also be used to make tea, and its oil-based extract can be combined with meals. Other forms of administering marijuana are through the addition of marijuana into pastries and baked products like cookies.

MedlinePlus (2022) states that THC is the primary active component in marijuana (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). This chemical is present in the marijuana plant’s foliage and flowering portions. Hashish is a chemical extracted from the female hemp plant with the greatest THC concentration (Medlineplus, 2022). Marijuana is also known as cannabis, grass, hashish, joint, Mary Jane, pot, reefer, and weed.

Transition: risk factors for cannabis use disorder

Topic support: According to the National Academies of Sciences (2018), both gender and the age of first THC use are connected with the establishment of chronic cannabis use. There is further evidence that the male gender and using cigarettes constitute risk factors for the development of problem cannabis usage.

Frequency of usage, oppositional behaviors, earlier age of first drinking, tobacco use, familial drug use, poor school achievement, and earlier sexual assault are other risk factors for the establishment of CUD throughout puberty (United Brain Association, 2022). The degree of the link between risk variables for developing problem cannabis use, such as other drug use and psychopathology, varies between adult and teenage cannabis use onset.

Conclusion: gender, age of first use, and other drug use are risks associated with cannabis use disorder

Transition: effects of marijuana use on body systems

Topic support: Short-term memory impairment makes it harder to learn and remember information. Decreased motor coordination, which interferes with fine motor abilities, raises the risk of injury. Alteration in judgment, heightening the likelihood of sexual activities that increase the spread of sexually transmitted illnesses. Paranoia and psychosis can occur with large dosages.

Long–term effects usage of marijuana includes addiction in approximately 9% of all abusers, 17% of those who start using in puberty, and 25 to 50% of everyday users, poor academic outcomes, with a greater risk of dropping out, cognitive impairment, including lower IQ in individuals who used marijuana often during adolescence, chronic bronchitis symptoms, and increased risk of persistent psychotic illnesses, particularly schizophrenia (Volkow et al., 2022).

THC in cannabis affects the central nervous system. THC stimulates dopamine to be released by brain cells. Cannabis intoxication results in pleasant sensations, feelings of relaxation, and a heightened sense of hunger.  Marijuana can also cause unpleasant side effects such as panic or anxiety disorders, delusions, and hallucinations.

Other health implications of cannabinoids include red eyes, elevated pulse rate and blood pressure, illnesses such as sinusitis, bronchitis, and asthma, and immune system deterioration in heavy users. Marijuana is also potentially addictive, and tolerance can develop as a result of addiction and which causes symptoms such as anxiety, agitation, and insomnia.

Conclusion: The main body system affected by THC is the CNS which leads to cognitive impairments as well as symptoms associated with CNS, such as hallucinations and delusions.

Transition: Management of cannabis use disorder and inter-professional role in the management of CUD

Topic support: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), motivational enhancement therapy (MET), and contingency management (CM) are examples of psychotherapeutic treatments, and Sherman and McRae-Clark (2018) show that combining the three treatment methods delivers the best results for CUD patients.

CBT assists patients in identifying behavioral antecedents, developing relapse-preventative and coping skills, and pursuing other desirable behaviors. Self-monitoring, cognitive reorganization, role acting, and modeling are some of the techniques used in CBT. Self-efficacy is increased due to homework fulfillment and positive use of coping skills, and patients are likely to utilize the skills again in the future.

MET is founded on the ideas of motivational interviewing and tries to improve the patient’s motivation to transform by offering non – judgemental criticism, investigating and resolving conflict, and joint goal creation. The nurse, who acts as a counselor, employs a nonconfrontational empathetic technique to elicit change talk, which predicts eventual behavior change.

CM has been extensively researched in drug misuse therapy but as an addition to psychotherapy. CM is based on operant conditioning of specific behavior, for example, negative drug test screen and session participation, and is most beneficial when validation prospects are frequent and the inability to meet the reinforcement criterion results in resettlement.

A study by Sherman and McRae-Clark (2018) concluded that the use of CM therapy in marijuana usage and its repercussions was reduced in the study participants that employed CM. Psychopharmacologic treatments can also be employed during psychotherapeutic treatments, especially to curb withdrawal symptoms. During THC withdrawal, the antidepressant nefazodone lowers anxiety and muscular discomfort.

In a preclinical model, the antidepressant mirtazapine reduces abstinence-related sleep disturbances and boosts hunger but does not modify withdrawal mood symptoms or prevent a recurrence. The oral cannabinoid agonist, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), taken 5 times per day, reduces both withdrawal symptoms and cannabis craving (Sherman & McRae-Clark, 2018).

Conclusion: CBT, MET, CM, and pharmacologic therapies aid in the management and treatment of CUD.

Summary: Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in the United States. Cannabis usage is linked to cognitive impairment, an elevated risk of psychotic illnesses, reduced educational attainment, and unemployment. Clinical studies for different cannabis use disorder therapies have also grown, with an emphasis on psychotherapy treatments, notably motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and contingency management.

Their data indicate that combining these three modalities results in the best treatment outcomes. Pharmacotherapy experiments have been done to supplement psychosocial treatment. Pharmacologic therapy N-acetylcysteine and gabapentin are two of the most promising drugs to treat CUD.

How CUD Impacts My Nursing Career

The cannabis use disorder information sheet is significant in my nursing profession and future mental health nursing career because deterring patients from drug use is frequently best promoted by a team effort to alleviate the underlying cause. It is advisable to take a nonjudgmental attitude to understand the reasons for addiction. Counseling must be provided to help with behavioral issues (Patel & Marwaha, 2022).

Again, psychiatric nurse assessment for mental health disorders is critical, and marijuana use affects the mental state examination assessment performed by a psychiatric nurse. As a nurse, the information sheet also informs me that a patient with a history of substance abuse disorder has the probability of using controlled drugs and that techniques for tracking controlled prescription medicines should be used.

Proposed Improvements And Better Ways This Information Could Be Conveyed

With rising misunderstandings about cannabis being risk-free, it is critical to bring evidenced data into the debate. Providers must educate patients, particularly young people under 21, who are more likely to develop long-term, and permanent cognitive deficits. Expectant patients, regardless of admit to using cannabis or not, should be informed about the possible effects of cannabis on the fetus (Patel & Marwaha, 2022).

Adults should be told that if they choose to use cannabis, they should keep it and its accouterments in a closed and hidden area to avoid pediatric intoxication. Providers must become acquainted with the consequences of cannabis use and communicate that the findings support the use of marijuana for particular circumstances is scarce and often deduced from active compounds formulations of isolated THC.

Providers should be aware that authorizing a patient to use medical marijuana for a specific symptom does not constrain that patient’s usage. It should be emphasized that long-term and severe cannabis usage might raise the danger of intoxication or withdrawal, necessitating medical treatment, as well as long-term effects that may be permanent (Patel & Marwaha, 2022). Through the rise of evidence-based usage, it is critical to distinguish marijuana abuse from use with extensive history taking. Differences in state rules regarding cannabis medicinal indications should be noted.

References

  • MedlinePlus. (2022). Substance use – marijuana. Medlineplus.gov. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000796.htm
  • National Academies of Sciences. (2018). Problem cannabis use. National Academies Press. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK425740/
  • Patel, J., & Marwaha, R. (2022). Cannabis Use Disorder. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.
  • Sherman, B. J., & McRae-Clark, A. L. (2018). Treatment of cannabis use disorder: Current science and future outlook. Pharmacotherapy36(5), 511–535. https://doi.org/10.1002/phar.1747
  • United Brain Association. (2022, June 9). Cannabis use disorder. United Brain Association. https://unitedbrainassociation.org/brain-resources/cannabis-use-disorder/
  • Volkow, N. D., Baler, R. D., Compton, W. M., & Weiss, S. R. B. (2022). Adverse health effects of marijuana use. The New England Journal of Medicine370(23), 2219–2227. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1402309

Cannabis Use Disorder Assignment Instructions

Start by reading and following these instructions:  1. Quickly skim the questions or assignment below and the assignment rubric to help you focus.  2. Read the required chapter(s) of the textbook and any additional recommended resources. Some answers may require you to do additional research on the Internet or in other reference sources. Choose your sources carefully.  3. Consider the discussion and the any insights you gained from it.  4. Create your Assignment submission and be sure to cite your sources, use APA style as required, check your spelling.  Assignment:  Quiz – Section 7 & 8 This assignment has three parts to it: Write a 1000-word essay summarizing the information sheet and the brochure below, how they will be used in your chosen career, proposed improvements and better ways this information could be conveyed. Separate each section in your paper with a clear heading that allows your professor to know which bullet you are addressing in that section of your paper. Support your ideas with at least one (1) citation in your essay. Make sure to reference the citations using the APA writing style for the essay. The cover page and reference page do not count towards the minimum word amount. Review the rubric criteria for this assignment. Information Sheet Using Figure 8-5 on page 217 of your textbook, create an information sheet on a topic of your choice related to a health issue. Follow the prompts on the left side of the figure creating the introduction, a Broad topic, a Narrow topic, and Points developed. Follow with your body paragraph to include a topic sentence, support sentences and then a transition to your second paragraph. You will continue with your next paragraph that starts with a topic sentence, support, a conclusion and transition paragraph to the next paragraph. You will continue with your third paragraph, starting with the topic sentence, supporting sentences, and a conclusion sentence. Then finalize the information sheet with a summary paragraph. Brochure Using the information sheet you prepared, create a brochure to include graphics. The content should be the key points that you developed on your information sheet. The format will be something that gives information on who developed this, if you are going to make a presentation, where and when? The top of pages 216 & 217 may give you some ideas of what you will want to add. Graphics many times will get people’s attention.   Assignment Expectations  Length: 1000 words, plus an information sheet and brochure; must thoroughly address the assignment in a clear, concise manner  Structure: Include a title page and reference page in APA style. These do not count towards the minimal word amount for this assignment.  References: Use the appropriate APA style in-text citations and references for all resources utilized to answer the questions.  Format: Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word document (.doc or .docx).  File name: Name each of your saved file according to your first initial, last name, and the assignment number (for example, “RHall Assignment 1.docx”)