Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal
Hypertension, Primary Prevention, and Health Promotion
With the changing disease dynamics, in which a rising proportion of diseases are attributed to poor lifestyle choices, preventive and health promotion activities are beneficial in halting a disease process, either before it develops or during its progression.
Primary disease prevention refers to the efforts to forestall an illness or injury from occurring, and it is accomplished by avoiding exposure to hazards that cause the disease/injury and changing unhealthy habits that may predispose one to a disease/injury (CDC, 2022). Examples of primary preventive methods include, but are not limited to, education on healthy and safe living behaviors such as physical fitness, vaccination against infectious illnesses, and policy enforcement to prohibit the use of hazardous items (CDC, 2022).
Because hypertension is the most prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular events, considerable efforts must be made to develop preventative interventions. Thus, hypertension control relies primarily on primary prevention and health promotion efforts, notably lifestyle choices. As a result, with a glimpse of the influence of primary prevention on illnesses, the goal of the subsequent section of this paper is to propose a community teaching plan for the primary prevention of hypertension, with the church as the target audience.
Planning for Teaching
|Topic||Hypertension: Primary Prevention and Health Promotion|
|Name of the Teacher|
|Credentials of the Teacher|
|Location of Teaching||Woodbridge Church, Virginia|
|Estimated Time||Four sessions, 45 minutes each|
|Supplies, Materials, and Equipment needed.||Laptop, projector, notebooksBrochures and other print materials containing information on hypertension and primary prevention strategies.|
|Community and Target Audience||Congregants at Woodbridge Church in Virginia, as well as residents of the broader Woodbridge census-designated place in Virginia|
Epidemiological Rationale for Topic
Hypertension continues to debilitate many patients worldwide. The continued rise in the prevalence of hypertension is attributed to increased participation in unhealthy lifestyle habits such as physical inactivity, poor diet, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking.
The lifestyle habits that contribute to the prevalence of hypertension serve as the foundation for primary prevention strategies. In 2010, 1.38 billion people, or 31.1% of the world’s adult population, had hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg (Mills et al., 2020).
According to the World Health Organization (2021), approximately 1.28 adults aged 30-79 years have hypertension worldwide. However, the prevalence varies across the globe, with factors such as geographical region, economic strength, and gender influencing the difference. High-income regions have a low prevalence of hypertension (28.5%), whereas low-to-middle-income countries have a disproportionately higher prevalence (31.5%) (Mills et al., 2020).
When it comes to age, men have a slightly higher prevalence of hypertension (31.9%) than women (30.1%) (Mills et al., 2020). Despite efforts to reduce the prevalence of the condition, 46% of adults with hypertension are still unaware that they have it (WHO, 2021).
Furthermore, only about half (42%) of adults with hypertension are diagnosed and treated, and approximately one in every five adults (21%) has it under control (WHO, 2021). The statistics show a flagrant gap in hypertension awareness, detection, and management, justifying the need for a community teaching plan proposal.
The morbidity, mortality, and economic consequences of hypertension are severe. Hypertension is responsible for a substantial number of cardiovascular events and premature deaths. In 2015, the estimated total number of fatalities due to systolic blood pressure of ≥110-115 mm Hg was 10.7 million, accounting for 19.2% of all deaths globally (Mills et al., 2020).
Furthermore, the total number of fatalities related to systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg was 7.8 million, accounting for 14.0% of all deaths worldwide (Mills et al., 2020). Ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke were the particular causes of hypertension-related mortality.
Studies have shown that in patients aged 40-69 years, a difference in usual systolic blood pressure of 20 mmHg or usual diastolic blood pressure of 10 mmHg is associated with a more than twofold difference in the rate of stroke deaths and a twofold difference in the rate of death due to IHD and other CVD causes (Mills et al., 2020).
Besides the risk and mortality associated with cardiovascular illness, hypertension is a substantial independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), both of which hasten a patient’s debilitation and overall risk of death.
The enormous expense of treating hypertension individuals, as well as the consequences that result, adds to the burden and enhances the urgency of managing the illness. Kirkland et al. (2018) discovered that the unadjusted mean annual medical expenditure attributable to patients with hypertension was $9089 in a 12-year longitudinal study from 2003 to 2014 and that individuals with hypertension had $1920 higher annual adjusted incremental expenditure, 2.5 times the inpatient cost, nearly double the outpatient cost, and nearly triple the prescription medication expenditure.
Furthermore, the healthcare expenses associated with hypertension treatment in the United States are $131 billion (Kirkland et al., 2018). The figures indicating the morbidity, mortality, and financial burden of hypertension call for increased preventative and treatment measures.
Knowledge deficit related to a lack of information about the disease process and prevention.
Following the gap in hypertension awareness, identification, and treatment found at Woodbridge Church in Virginia, it is critical to establish a plan, such as the one proposed, to raise their understanding of the condition and its prevention. The community teaching intends to raise awareness, which will result in a large number of individuals attending for screening and so obtaining treatment for hypertension.
Readiness for Learning
The church leaders must be informed to seek the opportunity and permission to conduct community teaching in a church setting. Their approval of the proposal is the first sign that the church is ready for primary prevention and health promotion teachings about hypertension. The Woodbridge church in Virginia has over 2500 members who engage in different gospel initiatives on various days of the week, which may be used for community teaching.
Furthermore, the worshippers indicate a desire to adhere to biblical teachings on directions and wisdom on how to live a decent life based on their firm Christian heritage. Among the biblical teachings are Corinthians 6:19-20, which states that the body is a temple of God; Romans 12:1, in which Paul the Apostle exhorts brothers to present their bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God; and Proverbs 23:20-21, in which people are warned not to be drunkards and gluttons because the drunkards and gluttons will squalor in poverty and be clothed in rags (Brewer et al., 2020).
The congregants indicated a desire to engage in biblical health teachings, were receptive and expressed interest in offering one of their gospel projects called ‘A Strong Foundation,’ which happens twice a week, for community health teaching.
Learning Theory to be Utilized
Vygotsky’s theory of social learning is widely used in teaching and learning. According to Vygotsky, the sociocultural environment influences learning. As a result, learning is not a universal process but rather differs among cultures (Yousef & Mahameed, 2022).
According to Vygotsky, the zone of proximal development and learning begins in childhood, when children perceive the adults they are learning from and co-construct their knowledge. As a result, the child’s social environment impacts their knowledge, thinking, and conduct. Thus, a person’s socioeconomic status influences fundamental mental processes such as attention, sensation, perception, and memory.
In certain cultures, memory is enhanced by note-taking, mind mapping, or the use of mnemonics, while storytelling is employed in others (Yousef & Mahameed, 2022). The community teaching plan will therefore build on the results of Vygotsky’s social learning theory, bolstering the audiences’ learning via the use of diverse print materials such as brochures and newsletters.
Furthermore, when adults become wary of hypertension and its prevention strategies, they respond by increasing participation in health promotion activities such as attending hypertension screening programs, engaging in physical activities, eating healthy foods, and limiting risk behaviors such as alcohol consumption, which the younger generation observes and reciprocates.
Vygotsky also described the scaffolding idea. Scaffolding refers to the instructional approaches used by educators to guide students toward better comprehension and independence in the learning process (Yousef & Mahameed, 2022). The strategies are simplified so that learners may internalize the topics and reinforce their comprehension.
Scaffolding tactics that may be used include the creation of simple Venn diagrams to demonstrate hypertension risk factors, the use of graphics to indicate prevalence, images of healthy meals, and physical exercise to reinforce understanding of healthy lifestyle habits.
Goal of Teaching
- To promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages
Rationale: Healthy behaviors, such as physical activity, eating healthy foods, and avoiding alcohol and cigarette smoking, lower the incidence of preventable diseases, allowing individuals to live longer lives free of maladies, injuries, disabilities, and premature death (CDC, 2022)
How Does the HP2020 Objective Relate to Alma Ata’s Health for Global Initiatives?
The 1978 Alma-Ata Declaration highlighted primary healthcare as the key to achieving the aim of Health for All. The following are the key issues that emerged from the declaration: health is a fundamental human right, and attainment of the highest possible level is a global social goal, the existing gross inequality in people’s health status between developed and developing countries is politically, socially, and economically unacceptable, primary healthcare is essential healthcare based on pragmatic, scientifically sound, and economically acceptable methods, and that an acceptable level of health for all people worldwide can be attained through a fuller and better use of worlds resources (Lindbloom, 2022).
The excerpt indicating that primary healthcare can be achieved through practical, scientifically sound, and economically acceptable methods and technology that are widely available to individuals and communities aligns with the HP2020 goal of improved quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all lifespans. In line with the Alma-Ata Declaration, the goal calls on the combined efforts of healthcare professionals, patients, and the community as a whole to achieve the health goals.
Behavioral Objectives (Including Domains), Content, and Strategies/Methods
|Behavioral Objective and Domain||Content||Strategies/Methods|
|Community health volunteer/educator will project a presentation to the audience (affective domain)||Definition of hypertension, risk factors, symptoms, and where to seek care||Simple and clear information will be presented in slide form. After the presentation, there will be an opportunity for questions and answers.|
|Community members will actively participate in blood pressure measurements (psychomotor domain)||Identification of a blood pressure machine and its parts, positioning of the patient, accurate placement of the cuff, and accurate reading||Demonstrations|
|Congregants will be informed of various hypertension primary preventive strategies (cognitive domain)||Themes include physical activity, healthy eating, salt intake, alcohol, cigarette, and stress management.||Brochures on a healthy diet, as well as AHA recommendations on a variety of cardiovascular range of physical exercisesDietary books
Other print publications on the health implications of alcohol and smokes
|A case study of a hypertensive patient will be read aloud, and congregants will be prompted to mention the patient’s health problems.||Case study readingIdentification of the patient’s concerns in the case study
Justification for the patient’s medical condition
Understanding how to assist the patient (where to refer, where to seek help)
Hypertension content will be delivered utilizing a PowerPoint presentation in clear, abstract, and basic language. Brochures on different hypertension topics will also be distributed. Furthermore, the attendees will see blood pressure measurement videos and participate in a real-time simulation of how to take blood pressure.
Moreover, after the session, the congregation will join in a discussion to ask and answer questions, unravel a case scenario, and make further recommendations on additional support necessary for the patient in the case study.
Planned Evaluation of Objectives
Implementing a structured questionnaire for each objective aids in assessing what the participants have gained from the program. End-of-session questions such as “what blood pressure cut-offs are crucial in the diagnosis of hypertension?” or “name the risk factors of hypertension” will be useful in evaluating the first objective. To evaluate the second objective, determine how many attendees were present, how many engaged in blood pressure screening, and how many of those who participated had hypertensive blood pressure ranges.
The third goal is to educate participants about preventative techniques, and to assess this, a questionnaire will be used to gauge attendees’ awareness of the different strategies. To assess the final objective, it is necessary to ascertain how many participants successfully unraveled the case scenario.
Planned Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Teaching Plan
A questionnaire is required to determine how many individuals had heard of or attended a hypertension awareness program. Furthermore, the number of community members that show up for hypertension screening and treatment is pertinent to determining if the objective was met.
One of the critical questions to ask in the questionnaire to establish the number of community members who actively participate in physical exercise is, “how many individuals engage in at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week?”.
Planned Evaluation of Lesson and Teacher
The program participants will be given an evaluation form for the instructor and the lesson. Attendees will indicate their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the recent program on primary preventive techniques for hypertension.
People who are dogmatic and firm believers who seek God’s intervention while ill may be resistant to the subject of health education in a hospital environment. Participants whose family or friends have suffered the repercussions of hypertension, whether it is a cardiovascular condition or even death, may be unwilling to speak openly throughout the program.
Language hurdles are also significant, particularly for non-English speakers or those who are not proficient in English. Furthermore, the elderly, whose cognitive capabilities have severely deteriorated, may have difficulties processing the information presented. Moreover, those with poor vision or hearing may struggle to keep up with the program, resulting in minimal gains that may not improve their quality of life.
The presentation will begin with a startling statistic, such as 31.1% of the worldwide adult population having hypertension, printed in bold, italics, and color to grab the audience’s attention. The notes will be provided in point form, concise and straightforward, to catch the attention of the attendees during the presentation. Furthermore, the usage of graphics, images, and videos will allow the audience to maintain their interest.
Another crucial approach for capturing the audience’s attention is to ask questions throughout the session. I will also ensure that I am audible enough so that the audience actively listens and does not get bored. Nonverbal indicators that will improve presentation delivery include pointing at the presentation or at the audience to ask a question and looking directly into the audience. Finally, I will summarize the presentation by highlighting the key topics.
As the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factor, hypertension imposes significant morbidity, death, and economic burden. People continue to participate in health-risky activities that raise their risk of hypertension due to a lack of information about the illness process and its risk factors. As a result, raising hypertension awareness will result in more hypertensive individuals being identified and treated. With the hope that this proposal will be accepted, I share my community teaching plan topic, target audience, and goals.
Brewer, L. C., Kumbamu, A., Smith, C., Jenkins, S., Jones, C., Hayes, S. N., Burke, L., Cooper, L. A., & Patten, C. A. (2020). A cardiovascular health and wellness mobile health intervention among church-going African Americans: Formative evaluation of the FAITH! App. JMIR Formative Research, 4(11), e21450. https://doi.org/10.2196/21450
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, September 8). Promoting health for adults. Cdc.gov. https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/factsheets/promoting-health-for-adults.htm
Kirkland, E. B., Heincelman, M., Bishu, K. G., Schumann, S. O., Schreiner, A., Axon, R. N., Mauldin, P. D., & Moran, W. P. (2018). Trends in healthcare expenditures among US adults with hypertension: National estimates, 2003-2014. Journal of the American Heart Association, 7(11). https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.008731
Lindbloom, A. (2022). Healthcare as a fundamental human right: The Alma Ata’s role in shaping health policy in three North American countries. https://baylor-ir.tdl.org/handle/2104/11851
Mills, K. T., Stefanescu, A., & He, J. (2020). The global epidemiology of hypertension. Nature Reviews. Nephrology, 16(4), 223–237. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41581-019-0244-2
World Health Organization. (2021). Hypertension. Who.int. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hypertension
Yousef, N. T., & Mahameed, M. I. (2022). Reading Yeats’s ‘A Prayer for My Daughter’ in light of Lev Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of learning. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 12(2), 241–247. https://doi.org/10.17507/tpls.1202.04