Nursing Service Plan Brief for Diabetes Management

The diabetes management center will offer concurrent and continuous ad-hoc care to manage diabetes and diabetes-related issues for outpatients and in-patients. The program will provide diabetes prevention and management services to patients across the state of Ohio. It will mimic an entire hospital and consist of both in-patient and outpatient services but will only offer services to diabetes patients. It will make specialized care to diabetic people more accessible by reducing and preventing the diabetes burden on Ohio residents.

Nursing Service Plan Brief for Diabetes Management

Diabetes is a rising menace, affecting about half of the US population. The center will provide hyperglycemia management to ensure glycemic control, which is essential for in-patient care. The clinic will involve diabetes specialists to offer clinical treatment of prediabetes, gestational diabetes, type I diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and hyperglycemia management (Reddy, Verma, & Dungan, 2020).

The center will provide top-class diabetes management services to reduce re-admission rates, promote better patient outcomes and reduce the hospital’s length of stay, thus improving the quality of care and lowering the cost of accessing medical care.

The center will also provide Random Sugar tests, Urine ACR tests, HBAIC tests, and Echo and Ultrasound tests (Reddy, Verma, & Dungan, 2020). The diabetes management center will offer several services, including weight loss, fitness and nutrition counseling, diabetes management and prevention, continuous glucose monitoring, wound clinic assistance, insulin pump therapy, and podiatry.

Proposed Nursing Service Idea

The diabetes management idea will involve starting a diabetes management center focusing only on diabetes. The center will offer preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services to all diabetes patients. The center will also provide in-patient services with a diabetes-specific ward to help manage diabetes-related complications. The clinic will employ a diverse team of dietitians, nurses (RNs & NPs), endocrinologists, exercise specialists, and social workers to provide high-quality health care for diabetic patients.

The clinic will be opened in one major city in Ohio to provide diabetic management services to the people but will expand to other US states in the future. The clinic will be open to the entire population by providing diabetes care for children and adults. The clinic will be categorized into three units to address the needs of various broad categories: children, men, and women.

These wings will be separate, especially for in-patients. The diabetes management center will include complete body analysis equipment that will be used to successfully determine the amount of water and fat in the body (Reddy, Verma, & Dungan, 2020). This will help develop personalized lifestyle improvement strategies such as exercise and diet plans. The clinic will also have a modern and well-equipped gym and fitness center that will help patients access high-quality fitness programs in the clinic.

Importance

The diabetes management clinic will be essential for giving diabetic people healthy life. The clinic will help patients manage diabetes to support them and their lifestyle. The assistance will introduce them to practical skills such as healthy diets, controlling blood sugar, solving problems, and staying active to help them live better with diabetes (Ivers et al., 2019). The clinic will also address the struggles faced by diabetic people, especially while learning to make lifestyle and diet changes, taking prescribed medication, and using other techniques to manage the illness.

The clinic will also educate patients on self-control diabetes in a caring and supportive environment. The clinic will offer diabetes education sessions to educate patients on popular management tools like exercises, blood sugar monitoring techniques, and diet changes (Reddy et al., 2020).

Diabetes education will also help patients cope with emotional problems connected to diabetes, such as managing illness-related stress. The clinic will also be essential in reducing bladder problems, fatigue, and other diabetes symptoms (Ivers et al., 2019). The programs offered in the clinic will help manage diabetes, thus reducing the chances of patients experiencing dementia, vision problems, and other serious medical issues associated with diabetes (Ivers et al., 2019).

The clinic personnel will provide essential regular follow-up on patients that will significantly help reduce long-term complications. This will involve enhancing strict metabolic control essential in preventing or delaying the progression of diabetes-related complications. Apart from offering glycemic control, the clinic will help patients with disability rehabilitation and limitations and prevent complications.

Market Analysis

Target Population Potential Referral Bases Potential Competitors
The primary target population will be the older adults and children in Ohio.The clinic will meet the needs of these patients equally by ensuring separate wings within the clinic for women, men, and children. They will involve patient ratings on e-commerce and social media places. It will also involve professional referrals from several doctors in hospitals in Ohio. Potential competitors will include hospitals and other healthcare organizations that provide patients with diabetes management. They also include other diabetes management clinics already existing in Ohio.Another major competitor will be various online and offline diabetes education programs that teach patients about self-management, thus reducing the number of potential outpatients.

SWOT Analysis

Strengths Weaknesses
A robust domestic market for diabetes care Other organizations quickly replicate the business models of diabetes care centers even with many patents and copyrights owned by the company.
Diabetes has a high-cost margin compared to other illnesses. Implementing technology in various diabetes care processes.
Superior services and products in diabetes care can help it increase its market share and improve the loyalty of existing customers. Low track record in environmental considerations
Diabetes care services have a successful Go to Market Track Record. Lack of essential talent to advance in digital transformations and technology.
Opportunities Threats
The growth in consumer disposable income An increase in the bargaining power of consumers
Lucrative opportunities in diabetes care due to globalization Stiff competition from already established diabetes care companies
The use of E-commerce and other social media platforms to promote its products Need for strong and exhaustive marketing campaigns
Expanding the market size and changing the preferences of patients The fixed-price culture in the diabetes care sectors

SWOT Analysis Results

Strengths

Diabetes care has a strong domestic market that can enhance the innovation and growth of the clinic. Diabetes care can quickly expand in the domestic market without significant innovation but might also require extended investment into development and research to join the international market (Cole et al., 2021). Since the clinic is first basing its operations in the local market, it has a great potential to expand even with limited innovation.

The clinic will also benefit from the high margins of diabetes care costs and their premium prices compared to competitors. This leads to higher promises of profitability, ensures that the clinic avoids competitive pressures, and invests substantial resources into development and research (Cole et al., 2021).

With superior services and products, the clinic will increase its competitive advantage, help it expand its market share, and benefit from improved customer loyalty. Offering high-quality services and products will enable the clinic to compete strongly with other global diabetes care players in the local market.

Diabetes care services have a strong go-to-market track record while launching new products to be used in the domestic market. The track record also extends to catering to the different markets contributed by insights from local consumers (Cole et al., 2021). The clinic has a brighter future and success since diabetes care centers have successfully tested various concepts in diverse markets and developed effective execution and strategy solutions.

Weaknesses

The clinic can suffer from replicating its diabetes management business model despite holding several copyrights and patents. It is challenging to implement intellectual property rights in the diabetes care industry. This opens risks for other companies stealing strong and new innovative ideas from the clinic. While intellectual property rights can effectively eliminate same-size competition, it isn’t easy to prevent start-ups from disrupting the market at different levels (Cole et al., 2021).

Another major weakness for the clinic is implementing technology in its diabetes care processes. Despite Diabetes care having integrated technology in its back-end processes, they still face serious challenges in utilizing the power of technology in various front-end processes.

Most organizations must consider environmental protections as a key factor in their business operations. The clinic can face consumer backlashes because of poor environmental protection strategies and areas where diabetes care services fail. The clinic could also face challenges due to lacking essential talent in digital transformation and technology.

These skills are essential for organizations, especially during the age of rapid innovations and technological developments. Diabetes care centers face many challenges in restructuring their processes to align with technological developments such as machine learning and artificial intelligence (Contreras & Vehi, 2018).

Opportunities

The clinic can significantly benefit from the increase in consumer disposable income to create new business models where customers start to pay progressively for accessing the clinic’s products and services. The clinic can utilize this approach to expand into other health areas.

Many profitable ventures in diabetes care can help the clinic grow in its market share. Globalization today has increased growth opportunities for many international markets, including a bigger diversity of high-quality products and technology that can help diabetes care centers to grow in the domestic markets.

The diabetes management clinic can use social media-oriented models and e-commerce to connect with local suppliers. Social media will also be essential for the clinic by cutting down the costs of joining new markets and reducing the marketing budget by easily connecting with potential customers (Contreras & Vehi, 2018). These strategies can also be essential in developing customer-oriented marketing based on their purchase behavior.

The clinic can benefit from the expanding market size, thus making huge profits. The increase in the number of new customers also leads to changes in customer preferences, which can be a strong advantage for new companies joining the diabetes care markets (Contreras & Vehi, 2018). The clinic can become more profitable by adding various customer preferences to develop high-quality services and products.

Threats

The growing bargaining power of diabetes patients can put a lot of downward pressure on prices, thus forcing organizations to lower their prices (Ivers et al., 2019). This can affect the clinic’s profitability, especially as it is a start-up trying to enter a new market.

The clinic can also face stiff competition from established diabetes care organizations in the local market. This is because the company is still new in the market, thus a limited number of customers and lower customer loyalty. The clinic must implement marketing campaigns to compete in a new market effectively. This will require extensive investments and progressive marketing campaigns to attract new customers and create brand loyalty for the existing customers.

The clinic can address the issue by using e-commerce and social media marketing to address the competition from already existing companies in the market and lower marketing costs. The clinic can significantly suffer from the culture of fixed prices that is common in the diabetes care industry (Constance & Lusher, 2020). This makes it difficult for the company to increase prices that meet the level of its premium services and products.

Cost-Benefit Analysis

Category Description of Service Plan Costs Description of Service Plan Benefits
The Organization  The total cost of buying complete body analysis equipment is $40,000. The body analysis equipment will enable many diabetes care services, such as measuring water and fat in the blood, with its benefit to the project reaching $95,000.
 Construction of the clinic and partitioning of the children’s, men and women’s wings will cost $ 35,000.  The construction and partitioning of the clinic will allow a starting number of 30 in-patients and serve over 200 patients monthly, with a possible benefit of $105,000 annually.
 The clinic will hire 15 nurses, 2 dietitians, 2 endocrinologists, 2 exercise specialists, and 5 social workers at $ 1,600,000 per year.  This huge team will be able to attend to many patients, thus, giving the organization $3,000,000.
Day-to-DayOperations  The clinic will require daily cleaning of the building, which will cost around $20,000 per month.  Daily cleanliness will reduce the spread of infectious diseases and attract a lot of patients, thus benefiting the organization by over $ 45,000 through new customers and eliminating expenses of treating infectious diseases.
 Organic and cholesterol-free food meals for in-patients are served four times a day at $50,000 a month.  The clinic will significantly benefit from preparing its food as it is cheaper and meets the health needs of diabetic patients, thus benefiting the organization with around $85,000 per month.
 Daily sugar tests and glucose monitoring among patients will cost the organization around $30,000 a month.  Since these tests are essential and must be carried out each time a patient goes to the clinic or sees a doctor, the clinic will significantly benefit from these activities. The organization will benefit from around $80,000 a month.
Daily exercise and fitness activities for mostly in-patients will cost the clinic around $20,000 per month.  Exercises and fitness strategies are essential in diabetes management and apply to all patients, thus making the clinic around $65,000 monthly.
Nurses provide daily prescribed medication to in-patients, especially to the elder and those who have severe conditions. This will cost the clinic around $200,000 on medication as nursing services are catered for in their salaries.  This is an important process of managing diabetes and thus essential to most of the population. The clinic will benefit from high-quality medicines and services amounting to $700,000.

Risk Assessment and Strategies

Risks Possible Results of the Risk Strategies for Minimizing the Risks
Low patient turnout during the first months of operation This is because the clinic is a new venture; thus, many patients know little about its existence and services. Diabetic patients in the region could have already registered at existing diabetes care centers. The clinic will undertake vigorous marketing and awareness campaigns during the first months using online and offline means to reach a vast target audience. The organization will use social media and e-commerce tools to cut marketing costs.
Low revenues and profits during the first months of operation The low patient turnout causes this since it is a start-up venture and, thus, low revenue generated. Another cause is the stiff competition from already established organizations. The organization will ensure that it introduces high-quality products and services to attract many patients and increase its profitability. This will also ensure that the clinic strongly competes with established diabetes care organizations in the local market.
High operational costs and low returns during the first few months The organization will be required to buy a lot of equipment, construction, and hiring, increasing its operational costs. The operational costs will be high because there is also little revenue to support the clinic’s operations. The organization will maintain a tight financial plan to cut costs to reduce operational costs. One major approach involves starting with a small staff and expanding it as the clinic grows. This will help reduce the salary and wage expenses, thus reducing the operational costs.
Patient denial can make patients skip medication or stop attending regular follow-ups. Patients can deny developing severe medical conditions because of diabetes or deny having diabetes after diagnosis because of little information about the disease. Patients can also be shocked and thus deny the diagnostic test, which can deteriorate their health. The clinic will ensure that it adequately explains to patients their conditions and diagnostic results to help them fully understand the nature of their health. It is also essential to inform the patient of some possible dangers of failing to seek or remain consistent with diabetes prescription and other management strategies.
Insufficient information to patients on diabetes and complex patients can lead to poor decision-making or problems for family members. Some patients diagnosed with diabetes can lack prior knowledge about the disease or are confused by the many explanations from various experts in the clinic. Such cases of insufficient information to patients can lead to legal cases as they can negatively affect the patient’s health. This will ensure effective diabetes education and training for patients to learn all details about their health situations. In applicable cases, the clinic will include patients’ parents, guardians, and families in the education sessions to effectively support them.

 Financial Projections

The clinic expects reduced low revenue in the first year as it tries to look for customers and markets its products and services. The first year is expected to be challenging for the clinic as it opens up and searches for customers. Despite the expected low number of patients during the first three months, the clinic projects a steady increase in revenue as it will serve more patients.

The clinic aims to offer free diabetes education for the first month to create awareness among the local public of its services. This will help increase the number of patients visiting the hospital, increasing capital. The organization will also increase its income by including unrelated diabetes sessions, such as opening fitness and gym services to the public at a minimal fee. This will help ensure the company’s facilities are continually used before the clinic is fully operational.

Methods of Generating Revenue

During the first year, the primary revenue generation activities will involve Random Sugar tests, Urine ACR tests, HBAIC tests, and Echo and Ultrasound tests. It will also generate revenue through healthy diet education, physical and fitness training, and managing blood sugar. These services are not so complicated to undertake and will enable meet the health needs of diabetes patients.

Other easier-to-provide services will include weight loss management, fitness, and nutrition counseling, diabetes management and prevention, continuous glucose monitoring, wound clinic assistance, insulin pump therapy, and podiatry. The clinic will charge diabetes patients a consultation fee of $20 and other additional medical charges depending on the healthcare needs.

These charges will help in settling staff salaries. The clinic will charge diabetes in-patients $120 for bed fee, $45 for healthy food, $55 for diabetes management prescriptions such as glucose (particular drugs not inclusive), $30 maintenance fee, and $40 for fitness, exercise, and weight loss fee per day.

The clinic will also generate income by charging the public to use its gym and training guidance services. Patients and the outer public who have not registered in the diabetes patients will be charged extra high and will pay $160 per month to access the clinic’s gym and physical fitness services.

Revenue Graph for Year 1

Service Payers

One primary service payer is diabetic patients admitted or served by the clinic. These will involve patients of all ages and genders to increase the clinic’s diversity. These will be critical payers for the organization as they directly pay for the clinic’s services and products.

Other payers will be health insurance companies because the clinic will allow health insurance plans as payment methods for patients with medical insurance covers. The clinic will collaborate with health insurance companies to ensure patients receive their medical care. Other payers will include companies who directly cover their employee’s health needs.

The clinic management team will approach such companies located in Ohio to cultivate health relations and ensure that their employees choose choose our clinic as where they will be receiving diabetic care. Another potential payer is government and state assemblies through various health covers such as Medicare and Medicaid.

Since we will be open to a diverse population, we will allow our patients to get some services based on their Medicaid and Medicare programs. The organization also targets schools to be service payers by proposing to offer diabetes education, a healthy diet, and fitness training for their various programs.

Operational Expense Budget

Category Description and cost ($) of Each Type of Expense
Personnel Expenses Salary- this will involve the salaries of our medical teams and non-medical staff (such as cooks, cleaners, drivers, security personnel, and customer assistants). This will cost the clinic $1,600,000 a year.
Other-than-Personnel (OTP)

Expenses

Medicines and medical equipment: bandages, syringes, surgical tools, and blood sugar testing kits. These expenses will amount to $1,000,000 each year
Utilities such as hospital electricity and water, $10,000
Healthy food and drinks for patients will cost approximately $70,000 a year.
Licenses include public health licensing, hygiene and sanitation, health practitioners license, and safety standards licenses. This will cost around $95,000 a year.
Stationery, computers, and in-patient entertainment systems will cost around $5,00 annually.
Cleaning and hygiene materials such as detergents, cleaning objects, mops, and disinfectants will cost approximately $40,000 yearly.
Medical staff and patient safety care materials, such as rubber gloves,surgical masks, and surgery wear. This will cost $90,000 a year.

Budget pie chart

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

Service Plan KPIs How will the KPI be Measured Frequency of Evaluation How will the KPI be Used for Future Decision-Making?
Structure: the number and proportion of board-certified medical teams. This KPI will be measured by calculating the number of board-certified dietitians, nurses, endocrinologists, exercise specialists, and social workers. This team will then be compared with the patient population to determine the patient-physician ratio (Constance & Lusher, 2020). This KPI will be measured four times a year, that is after, every three months. This KPI will determine if the organization should increase or lay off some of the medical team. It will also help in decisions on employee burnout, reduce congestion in the clinic and improve the quality of care.
Process: the percentage of diabetes patients who have undergone diabetes tests and have received treatment. The KPI will be measured by recording and calculating the number of diabetes patients reported to the clinic and comparing them with those who underwent diabetes tests and treatment. The KPI will be measured and evaluated every two months to determine the average monthly success of the clinic. It will help in future marketing and awareness strategies to increase the conversion rates in the clinic based on patient data.
Outcome: the number of patients who had their diabetes problems successfully solved. The clinic will conduct patient surveys and analyze their feedback to determine their satisfaction level and hospital perception after treatment. Each patient will provide this information every week. The information will help create strategies to improve care quality and enhance customer satisfaction.

System-level Improvement

Staff support and improving interprofessional teams’ collaboration is a priority for any healthcare institution. Diabetes is a complex disease, and various teams will be involved in its prevention, cure, rehabilitation, and follow-up. These professionals must work together for better outcomes. Providing support for continuing education is an essential strategy for staff support and improving interprofessional collaboration (Zakeri & Dehghan, 2020).

Offering staff education beyond the minimum licensing requirements helps staff feel valued and valued. Educating increases staff knowledge and self-confidence, promoting self-confidence and enhancing better performance in their collaborative practices (Zakeri & Dehghan, 2020). Reward and recognition schemes increase performance significantly.

According to Hussain et al. (2019), rewarding individuals and teams is a motivational factor that increases team playing and promotes the participation of all team members. Reward and recognition ensure all members carry out their roles promptly and dramatically increase an organization’s performance. These system-level strategies will enhance staff support and increase interprofessional collaboration.

Tasks and Timelines

Task Task OwnerTitle/Position Timeline Prior to Opening Service Frequency of Task Status Meetings
Internet and electricity connection. Technical operations coordinator. 2 months After every 2 days
Purchase of fitness and gym equipment Physical training coordinator. 1 month weekly
Design and setup of fitness center Physical fitness instructor 3 weeks weekly
The setting of water, sanitation, and sewerage systems The public health safety director 3 months weekly
Building partitioning and painting Building safety manager 3 months weekly
Ward and surgery rooms setup Head Nurse I month weekly
Purchasing kitchen equipment and kitchen setup Chief catering manager 1 month weekly
Hospital cleaning Head janitor 2 weeks After every 2 days
Landscape and flowerbed maintenance Landscaper 3 months weekly
Fencing and external security details Chief security officer 2 months weekly

Executive Summary

Proposed Nursing Service Idea

The project will involve a diabetes management center for diabetes patients of all ages. This will involve offering diabetes management services to children, adults, and the elderly. The center will offer significant diabetes management services such as weight loss management, fitness, and nutrition counseling, diabetes management and prevention, continuous glucose monitoring, wound clinic assistance, insulin pump therapy, and podiatry.

Other services will include Random Sugar tests, Urine ACR tests, HBAIC tests, and Echo and Ultrasound tests. The center will also entail an in-patient ward that will offer services to diabetes patients requiring in-patient care services.

Market Analysis

The market for diabetes management services is broad and promising in Ohio, thus providing high chances for the clinic’s success. There are few diabetes management services in Ohio, and the clinic would benefit from an expanding diabetes management market. The clinic would also have a competitive advantage in the diabetes management sector as it meets the diabetes management needs of children, adults, and the elderly.

SWOT Analysis

The clinic enjoys various strengths, such as a strong domestic market that can enhance the innovation and growth of the clinic. The clinic can quickly expand in the domestic market without significant innovation. It will benefit from the premium prices of diabetes care compared to other competitors leading to higher promises of profitability. With superior services and products, the clinic will increase its competitive advantage, help it expand its market share, and benefit from improved customer loyalty.

High-quality services and products will enable the clinic to compete strongly with other established diabetes management organizations. The clinic has a brighter future and success since diabetes care centers have successfully tested various concepts in diverse markets and have succeeded in developing effective execution and strategy solutions.

Weaknesses

The clinic can suffer from replicating its diabetes management business model despite holding several copyrights and patents. It is challenging to implement intellectual property rights in the diabetes care industry. Another weakness for the clinic is implementing technology in its diabetes care processes. Despite Diabetes care having integrated technology in its back-end processes, they still face serious challenges in utilizing the power of technology in various front-end processes.

The third weakness is that most organizations today must consider environmental protections as a key factor in their business operations. The clinic can face consumer backlashes because of poor environmental protection strategies and areas where diabetes care services fail. Lastly, the clinic could face challenges due to lacking essential talent in digital transformation and technology.

Opportunities

The clinic can significantly benefit from the increase in consumer disposable income to create new business models where customers start to pay progressively for accessing the clinic’s products and services. The clinic can benefit from many profitable ventures in diabetes care that can help it grow its market share through high-quality products and technology.

The diabetes management clinic can use social media-oriented models and e-commerce to connect with local suppliers. Social media will also be essential for the clinic by cutting down the costs of joining new markets and reducing the marketing budget by easily connecting with potential customers. The clinic can also benefit from the expanding market size, thus making huge profits.

Threats

The growing bargaining power of diabetes patients can put a lot of downward pressure on prices, thus forcing organizations to lower their prices. The clinic can also face stiff competition from established diabetes care organizations in the local market.

Another threat is the clinic will be required to carry out vehement marketing campaigns if it is to compete in a new market that is expensive effectively. Lastly, the clinic can significantly suffer from the culture of fixed prices common in the diabetes care industry, making it difficult for the company to increase prices that meet the level of its premium services and products.

Cost-Benefit Analysis

The organizational cost-benefit analysis reveals that it would be profitable for the clinic to undertake various development activities such as buying complete body analysis equipment, partitioning the hospital into children’s, men’s, and women’s wings, and hiring nurses, dietitians, endocrinologists, exercise specialists, and social workers. These organizational processes would help increase revenue and enhance high-quality care, despite costing the clinic a lot of money.

The clinic should also undertake various day-to-day activities such as routine cleaning, Provision of healthy and balanced diets, daily sugar tests and glucose monitoring, daily exercise and fitness activities for mostly in-patients, and providing medication daily to Provision of daily prescribed medication to in-patients by nurses, especially to the elder and those who have severe conditions. These activities do not affect the organization’s revenue as its benefits outdo the costs and enhance high-quality care to patients.

Risk Assessment

Some of the significant risks for the clinic are low patient turnout, low revenues and profits, high operational costs, and low returns, especially during the first months of operation. Other patient-related risks include Patient denial, which can make patients skip medication or stop attending regular follow-ups. Insufficient information to patients on diabetes and complex patients can lead to poor decision-making. These risks, if not addressed, can affect the clinic’s quality of care and revenue generation.

References

  • Constance, J., & Lusher, J. M. (2020). Diabetes management interventions for homeless adults: a systematic review. International Journal Of Public Health65(9), 1773-1783. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-020-01513-0 0.  
  • Contreras, I., & Vehi, J. (2018). Artificial intelligence for diabetes management and decision support: a literature review. Journal of Medical Internet Research20(5), e10775. https://doi.org/doi: 10.2196/10775
  • Cole, M., Katz, S., Nwabude, P., Nwosu, S., & Parker, J., (2021) Optimizing The Revenue of The Joslin Diabetes Center.Cole, M., Katz, S., Nwabude, P., Nwosu, S., & Parker, J. (2021). Optimizing The Revenue of The Joslin Diabetes Center. Retrieved from https://ctlsites.uga.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/1460/2021/12/Consultancy-Report.pdf
  • Hussain, S. D., Khaliq, A., Nisar, Q. A., Kamboh, A. Z., & Ali, S. (2019). The impact of employees’ recognition, rewards and job stress on job performance: Mediating role of perceived organization support. SEISENSE Journal of Management, 2(2), 69-82. https://doi.org/10.33215/sjom.v2i2.121
  • Ivers, N. M., Jiang, M., Alloo, J., Singer, A., Ngui, D., Casey, C. G., & Catherine, H. Y. (2019). Diabetes Canada 2018 clinical practice guidelines: key messages for family physicians caring for patients living with type 2 diabetes. Canadian Family Physician65(1), 14-24.
  • Reddy, N., Verma, N., & Dungan, K. (2020). Monitoring technologies-continuous glucose monitoring, mobile technology, biomarkers of glycemic control. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/books/NBK279046/
  • Zakeri, M. A., & Dehghan, M. (2021). The role of continuing education in protecting nurses against COVID-19 infection. Journal of Occupational Health and Epidemiology, 10(2), 64-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.52547/johe.10.2.64