Factors that Influence the Development of Psychopathology
Psychopathology development is influenced by various factors recognized over time through. Neurotransmitters, neurodevelopment, and genes are the most implicated factors in psychopathology. Neurotransmitters are responsible for mood expression, emotions, reasoning, memory, and other cognitive and physical functions (Jiang et al., 2022). Their absence or presence is thus vital in explaining psychopathologies.
Smoller et al. (2019) show that some defective genes are essential factors in diseases such as schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, depression, and Alzheimer’s. Individuals can inherit these defective genes, and a diagnosis of psychopathologies affecting the genes in first-degree relatives translates to an increased risk for the disease. Neurodevelopment is also essential in psychopathology.
Congenital disorders in various systems lead to acromegaly, tetralogy of Fallot, and renal agenesis. Congenital disorders affecting the neurologic system (neurodevelopment problems) are also implicated in psychopathologies, such as autism, developmental language disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Thus, biological factors play a vital role in psychopathology.
Psychological factors implicated in psychopathology include traumatic experiences in childhood and young adulthood. Exposure to violence in younghood and young adulthood (such as work in the army) increases stress and hormone levels, fear, anxiety, and specific phobias.
Kalin (2020) shows that exposure to factors affecting individuals’ mental health, especially trauma, is implicated in many psychiatric disorders and behaviors. For example, rape and bullying tendencies are common among individuals who were bullied or sexually abused in childhood. These conditions include anxiety and depression, and post-traumatic stress disorders.
In many instances, mental disorders are associated with community and family violence and trauma, and these trends expose them to drugs and violence to escape these traumas. Psychological symptoms in psychiatric conditions include anxiety, distress, fear, irritability, low energy, and sleep disturbance.
Social and cultural factors are interrelated and greatly influence psychopathology. Cheung and Mak (2018) note that emotions and behavior depend greatly on societies. Conduct/behavior that does not align with societal conduct may count as a psychological disorder.
Molerio (2018) notes that cultural factors such as values and practices influence individuals’ interactions. For example, LGBTQ individuals report higher rates of suicide, traumatic stress, depression, and anxiety disorders due to discrimination, physical violence, and labeling in these communities. Understanding and working on these social and cultural factors, especially stereotypes, to manage psychopathologies.
Interpersonal factors are vital in the development and expression of psychiatric disorders. Brown et al. (2019) note that “Internalization, detachment, disinhibition, dominance, and compulsivity” are common in many psychiatric disorders (Brown et al., 2019).
These factors in normal individuals, such as disinhibition and detachment, can lead to developmental problems such as speech, judgment, and cognitive changes. For example, social exclusion and lack of social support for older adults can lead to depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric problems. Understanding these interpersonal factors’ presentation and their factors in earlier life stages can lead to better diagnosis and management.
Psychopathologies are less understood than pathophysiologic disorders, and the rising pressure of advanced nursing practice to improve their diagnosis and management is based on these premises. Biological, social, and cultural. Psychological and interpersonal factors play vital roles in psychopathology.
These factors are evident in these psychiatric disorders’ development, expression, and management. In addition, nurses must understand these factors before implementing interventions to ensure they do not interfere with the management process.
Brown, A., Barker, E. D., & Rahman, Q. (2020). A systematic scoping review of the prevalence, etiological, psychological, and interpersonal factors associated with BDSM. The Journal of Sex Research, 57(6), 781-811. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2019.1665619
Cheung, F. M., & Mak, W. W. S. (2018). Sociocultural factors in psychopathology. In J. N. Butcher & J. M. Hooley (Eds.), APA handbook of psychopathology: Psychopathology: Understanding, assessing, and treating adult mental disorders., Vol. 1. (pp. 127–147). American Psychological Association. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1037/0000064-006
Jiang, Y., Zou, D., Li, Y., Gu, S., Dong, J., Ma, X., Xu, S., Wang, F., & Huang, J. H. (2022). Monoamine neurotransmitters control basic emotions and affect major depressive disorders. Pharmaceuticals, 15(10), 1203. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15101203
Kalin, N. H. (2020). Early-life environmental factors impacting the development of psychopathology. American Journal of Psychiatry, 177(1), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19111181
Molerio, C. (2018). Culture and psychopathology: New perspectives on research, practice, and clinical training in a globalized world. Front Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00366
Smoller, J. W., Andreassen, O. A., Edenberg, H. J., Faraone, S. V., Glatt, S. J., & Kendler, K. S. (2019). ” Psychiatric genetics and the structure of psychopathology”: Correction. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-018-0026-4
Explain the biological (genetic and neuroscientific); psychological (behavioral and cognitive processes, emotional, developmental); and social, cultural, and interpersonal factors that influence the development of psychopathology.
Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses
BY DAY 6 OF WEEK 1
Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days by explaining the implications of why, as an advanced practice nurse, it is important to adopt a multidimensional, integrative model of psychopathology.