Global Healthcare Comparison Matrix and Narrative Statement

Part 1: Global Healthcare Comparison Matrix

Global Healthcare Comparison Matrix and Narrative Statement

Global Healthcare Issue  Universal Health Coverage
Description The World Health Organization (WHO) primarily focuses on the improved quality access of healthcare services to all individuals.
Country United States  China
Describe the policy in each country related to the identified healthcare issue Fee-for-Service Policy:This policy is a traditional sort in which the healthcare insurance companies pays for the people who covered within the policy (WebMD, 2018). National Essential Medicines Policy (NEMP):This policy promotes the affordability and availability of the essential medicines with reduced economic burden on the recipients of healthcare (Ding & Wu, 2017).
What are the strengths of this policy? This policy allows variety of choice of healthcare providers and organization. A patient can consult to any healthcare provider and organization with respect to his healthcare needs (Bizmatic, 2018). This policy reduces patient’s economic burden through selling all medicines at zero markup. It also reducers patients visit to high level hospitals (Ding & Wu, 2017).
What are the weaknesses of this policy? The weaknesses include that the policy is quite expensive. Moreover, this policy does not cover any preventive measures associated programs (Bizmatic, 2018). This policy does not include all medicines but the healthcare providers only have to choose from the National Essential Medicines List (NEML) and the supplementary provincial essential medicines list (Ding & Wu, 2017).
Explain how the social determinants of health may impact the specified global health issue. (Be specific and provide examples) The social determinants of health put significant impact on the universal health coverage in US. For instance, following the statistics of 2018, Alaska has 6.5% unemployment and many citizens are working at lower wages (Statista, 2019). Therefore, it is quite difficult for these individuals to afford high expenditure of healthcare. The universal health coverage associates with social health determinants. For example, the employment rate of Heilongjiang is 4.21% which makes it difficult to achieve their healthcare needs (Statista, 2019).
How has each country’ government addressed cost, quality, and access to the selected global health issue? Government is sincerely working on resolving this issue. The previous president implemented Affordable Care Act (ACA) to promote insurance so that maximum number of Americans could receive care apart from its expense (Béland, Rocco, & Waddan, 2016). Moreover, Trump tries to associate Congress with US healthcare, which will reduce Medicare expense (Rice, Unruh, van Ginneken, Rosenau, & Barnes, 2018). The president of China, Xi Jinping centralize the healthcare needs of its citizens. Therefore, he approved Healthy China 2030 plan, which outlined by China’s state council and Central Party Committee (WHO, 2018). This plan will develop long term healthcare strategic planning and promotes healthcare services to citizens.
How has the identified health policy impacted the health of the global population? (Be specific and provide examples) The fee-for-service policy provided insurance that helps the insurers in access to quality healthcare services, whenever they need. For instance, a person with insurance can immediately receive care if he suffered from any incident such as infectious disease like cancer. Under fee-for-service the person will receive complete and quality care. The NEMP provides essential medications to patients, which fulfill patient’s needs at greater extent (Ding & Wu, 2017). Therefore, it complies with the global agenda of Universal Health Coverage.
Describe the potential impact of the identified health policy on the role of nurse in each country. This policy restricts each nurse and healthcare provider in provision of quality services and value care (Bizmatic, 2018). This policy puts significant impact on nurses and doctors because under this policy nurses and doctors are allowed to prescribe drugs from the NEML (Ding & Wu, 2017). Therefore, they have to be careful while prescribing drugs. Prescription of false drug may cause severe damage to patient.
Explain how global health issues impact local healthcare organizations and policies in both countries. (Be specific and provide examples) The universal health coverage puts significant impact on local healthcare organization and policies. For example, if the individuals of a local area prefer their local healthcare organization for their healthcare needs. However, for specialized care these individuals require to more to other organizations, which is not possible for all individuals (Tangcharoensathien, Mills, & Palu, 2015 Global Healthcare Comparison Matrix and Narrative Statement).Therefore, the universal health coverage provides quality care to all individuals from their local healthcare organization. Due to which the quality of these organizations up rises and they will develop more impactful policies. The China’s local health organization and policies significantly impact from Universal Health coverage. Most of the organization primarily works to promote healthcare delivery to all patients and create policies as NEMP made in Tianjin (Ding & Wu, 2017).
General Notes/Comments Under fee-for-service policy, the US healthcare industry tries to overcome financial load. However, this policy is expensive enough that it only be applied on certain population. Therefore, a better policy is still required that promotes Universal Health Coverage in US. This policy has great significance in achieving the Universal Health Coverage agenda.

Part 2: Narrative Statement

  1. Explain how you would advocate for the incorporation of a global perspective or lens into your local practice and role as a nurse leader.

Following the policies of US and China, I advocate the Universal Health Coverage issue following the NEMP of China. As a nurse, I will ensure the provision of right medicine with broader outcomes. My skills would also be affected with the selection of medicine with broader outcomes but reduced side effects.

  1. Explain how the incorporation of a global perspective or lens might impact your local practice and role as a nurse leader.

The incorporation of global perspective would impact my practices through the quality of provided services. Moreover, the outcomes and time period for each patient to recover would also impact my role as a nurse leader.

  1. Explain how the incorporation of a global perspective or lens into your local practice as a nurse leader represents and contributes to social change. Be specific and provide examples.

The incorporation of Universal Health Coverage in my practices brings great social change because being a nurse I directly comes in contact with patient. I would better help them in understanding their health needs and improve their social determinants such as their lifestyle. If the patients understand their needs and changes their lifestyle and similar other social habit that are easy to change then their overall health coverage would be greater.

Global Healthcare Comparison Matrix and Narrative Statement References

Global Healthcare Comparison Matrix and Narrative Statement Example 2

Global Health Comparison Grid Template

Global Health Comparison Grid Template

Global Healthcare Issue  HIV/AIDS
Description HIV is one of the world’s most serious health and development challenges. The World Health Organization estimates that currently, about 30 million people are living with HIV, while tens of millions have succumbed to it since it first emerged (WHO, 2016).No cure has been found for the virus but tremendous strides have been made regarding research into possible vaccines. Currently, the virus is managed by the administration of anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) and advocating for preventive measures such as behavior change programs, use of condoms, abstinence, and male circumcision.

Global efforts to combat the epidemic were launched with the establishment of the United Nations Program on AIDS (UNAIDS) in 1987.

The Global Fund, dedicated to combating AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria and the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals are other global initiatives against AIDS. Besides, there are regional as well as country-specific initiatives aimed at combating further spread of the epidemic.

Country United States  Kenya
Describe the policy in each country related to the identified healthcare issue The US has several policies aimed at fighting the epidemic both globally and locally. However, the National HIV/AIDS Strategy which was launched by President Barack Obama in 2010 remains one of the boldest steps to combat the epidemic. The objectives of the strategy are; reduction of new HIV infections; improving health outcomes for HIV patients; increasing access to healthcare; eliminating disparities and inequalities for people living with HIV/AIDS; and synchronization of response to HI/AIDS (De Jesus & Williams, 2018). Kenya enacted the HIV Prevention and Control Act in 2006 with several objectives regarding the fight against the spread of HIV/AIDS. The act was established to; promote public awareness about causes, modes of transmission, effects, means of prevention and control of HIV; promote safety and universal precautions in practices and procedures that carry the risk of HIV transmission; protection of human rights of individuals suspected or known to be infected with the virus; and address and eradicate conditions that aggravate the spread of HIV infections (Nyaga et al., 2010).
What are the strengths of this policy? The strengths of the policy include; reduction in stigmatization rates for people living with HIV, support for research in drug and vaccine development; and making HIV treatment and healthcare affordable to the masses (De Jesus & Williams, 2018). With the act in place, various strides have been made to combat the virus. Some of them include; provision of free HIV/AIDS screening tests to determine the extent of prevalence, reductions of mother-to-child infections; reduction in HIV-related morbidity and mortality rates, and improved healthcare services for HIV patients.The policy has also advocated for increased public awareness and knowledge about the epidemic. With this, discrimination and stigmatization related to the disease have significantly reduced (Nyaga et al., 2010).
What are the weaknesses of this policy? The weaknesses of the strategy include; failure to quantify the population size of unmet service needs and failure to provide steps towards addressing the existing barriers to care and treatment that are pervasive in the country (De Jesus & Williams, 2018). The policy has not attained much regarding the elimination of social and economic inequalities and cultural barriers to HIV/AIDS prevention (Nyaga et al., 2010).
Explain how the social determinants of health may impact the specified global health issue. (Be specific and provide examples) Social determinants of health continue to impact HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment in the US. Notable social determinants of health in the US include poverty, racial discrimination, and unequal access to healthcare.For example, studies indicate that Africa-Americans have a higher probability of contracting the virus and due to poverty they are also highly likely to die from the virus more than the white majority (Singh et al, 2017). In Kenya, social determinants of health affecting the war on HIV include high poverty levels, illiteracy, and stigma.Many rural populations are nor educated and find it difficult to comprehend HIV prevention measures hence leading to an increase in new infections.

Poverty levels are also high hence HIV prevalence among the poor such as fishing communities and commercial sex workers are high. Poverty also limits access to healthcare.

How has each country’s government addressed cost, quality, and access to the selected global health issue? The government has increased its testing capacity by targeting to test all people within the 15-65 age brackets annually despite their status. The Medicare program also covers pregnant mothers and people outside of the above age bracket hence increasing testing and access to health care at no additional cost (Pellowski et al., 2013). HIV/AIDS testing, treatment, and management services in public hospitals and health facilities are provided free of charge. The National Hospital Insurance Fund also covers medication for HIV patients in appointed health facilities.
How has the identified health policy impacted the health of the global population? (Be specific and provide examples) The policy is in line with global efforts to combat the virus through prevention, care, diagnosis, support, and treatment of the virus. This is also in tandem with other governments’ and health authorities’ initiatives. Government efforts have promoted the dissemination of information on the epidemic and also participated in research to find possible cure and vaccination against the virus hence augmenting global efforts. It has also collaborated with other governments and NGOs fighting the epidemic.
Describe the potential impact of the identified health policy on the role of nurses in each country. The role of the nurse in the US has been expanded with the health strategy. Being frontline workers, nurses are charged with creating public awareness, attending to HIV patients, and offering the necessary support. They are also heavily involved in policy formulation (Burke, 2016). The nurse is the first contact that a patient encounters when visiting a health facility. With the act coming into force, the role of the nurse has expanded particularly regarding treatment and public awareness.  They have also been at the center of the war against stigmatization and discrimination.
Explain how global health issues impact local healthcare organizations and policies in both countries. (Be specific and provide examples) Global health issues exert significant pressure on local health institutions and government policies. For example, the outbreak of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the US forced the government to move with speed to formulate appropriate policies to tackle the health problem. Funding for the State Department of Health had to also increase to help in prevention and research efforts. In 2017 for instance, the Center for Disease Control spent about $340 million for the prevention of HIV (Biesma et al., 2018). In Kenya, the outbreak of HIV/AIDS increased government expenditure on the prevention and treatment of HIV. It also generated a significant increase in the overall burden of disease. Besides, primary healthcare was also significantly weakened by the epidemic.
General Notes/Comments The policy continues to attain its intended purpose. The policy has helped the country to make tremendous strides in combating the spread of HIV although several challenges have been encountered.

As a nurse leader, it is my responsibility to assess situations surrounding important health issues and advocate for justice and equality. To succeed in this respect, I would need to partner with lawmakers and inter-professional leaders to help in identifying, implementing, and evaluating a strength-based approach that engages all stakeholders in addressing global health issues.

Nurses exert a significant influence on the everyday lives of people and their health. Incorporating a global perspective or lens to one’s local practice will enable nurse leaders to apply their knowledge and skills to address issues affecting population health across local communities. Incorporating a global perspective into the local practice results in social change in several ways. For example, nurse leaders using global perspectives in their practice may significantly help vulnerable and underserved populations in accessing healthcare.

References

  • Biesma, R. G., Brugha, R., Harmer, A., Walsh, A., Spicer, N., & Walt, G. (2018). The effects of global health initiatives on the US health systems: a review of the evidence from HIV/AIDS control. Health policy and planning24(4), 239-252.
  • Burke, S. (2016). Influence through policy: Nurses have a unique role. Reflections on Nursing Leadership.
  • Curtis, E. A., de Vries, J., & Sheerin, F. K. (2011). Developing leadership in nursing: exploring core factors. British Journal of Nursing20(5), 306-309.
  • De Jesus, M., & Williams, D. R. (2018). The Care and Prevention in the United States Demonstration Project: a call for more focus on the social determinants of HIV/AIDS. Public Health Reports133(2_suppl), 28S-33S.
  • Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS. (2002). Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. UNAIDS.
  • Nyaga, R. K., Kimani, D. N., Mwabu, G., & Kimenyi, M. S. (2010). HIV/AIDS in Kenya: A review of research and policy issues. Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA).
  • Pellowski, J. A., Kalichman, S. C., Matthews, K. A., & Adler, N. (2013). A pandemic of the poor: Social disadvantage and the US HIV epidemic. American Psychologist68(4), 197.
  • Singh, G. K., Daus, G. P., Allender, M., Ramey, C. T., Martin, & Vedamuthu, I. P. (2017). Social determinants of health in the United States: addressing major health inequality trends for the nation, 1935-2016. International Journal of MCH and AIDS6(2), 139.
  • World Health Organization. (2016). Global health sector strategy on HIV 2016-2021. Towards ending AIDS (No. WHO/HIV/2016.05). World Health Organization.