Johnson Orlando and the 1950s to 1960s

Dorothy E Johnson and Ida Jean Orlando are some of the nursing theorists who developed their work in the 1950s and 1960s. Their theories are the behavioral system model of nursing and the deliberative nursing process theory, respectively.

Johnson Orlando and the 1950s to 1960s

The theorist of focus in this discussion is Dorothy Johnson. This discussion presents a clinical practice situation that demonstrates Johnson’s model of health and how the nurse can use the theory to support returning the patient to balance and stability.

The behavioral system model of nursing is built on the belief that patients’ illnesses are all caused by ineffective behavioral functioning. The model also emphasizes fostering efficient and effective behavioral functioning to prevent patients’ illnesses.

Johnson defined the patient as a behavioral system containing seven subsystems with four structural characteristics. The seven subsystems include affiliative, ingestive, dependency, sexual, eliminative, aggressive and achievement (Walker, 2020).

The model also states that every individual has specific purposeful, patterned, and repetitive ways of acting, which form the behavioral system, and makes them unique. The model additionally maintains that the system should be balanced, and an imbalance in any system causes disequilibrium. According to this model, the nurse’s role is to assist the patient in maintaining equilibrium.

Johnson’s model of health has been applied in clinical practice across various sectors. One of the clinical practice situations that demonstrates the application of the Johnsons model of health is when caring for chronically ill patients.

Chronically ill patients require care services for a long time. When caring for chronically ill patients, for instance, diabetes patients, Johnson’s behavioral system model can be used to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of nursing interventions.

Additionally, the model can be applied to assess whether the patient has changed their behavior occasionally. Change in behavior for the diabetic patient would be demonstrated in things such as engaging in physical exercises, attending check-ups and follow-ups, administering insulin injections for home patients, keeping records of their blood sugar regulation, and seeking medical help when needed.

Evgin and Bayat (2020) note that nursing interventions are said to have been effective if the patient has stabilized their behavior to improve health or facilitate healing. Chronically ill patients require constant emotional and psychosocial support, which is one of the provisions of the behavioral model in enhancing behavior change.

Nurses can use the behavioral system theory to support patients in returning to balance and stability by offering emotional support and encouragement to the patient. According to Askar and Ovayolu (2022), in the behavioral system model, nursing practice is the external force that preserves and maintains behavior that would influence physical and social health or cause illness.

Holistic nursing practice includes meeting patient needs in all dimensions, including social and emotional needs. Nurses can use Johnson’s behavioral system theory to help patients regain functional balance through openness, creating a nurse-patient relationship of trust, and helping patients deal with their fears concerning the illness.

Furthermore, the nurse can use the theory to support the patient’s stability by creating an environment whereby the patient feels safe, supported and provided with the necessary care to enhance behavior change. In Johnson’s health model, environment entails the human’s behavioral system’s surroundings and the internal stressors that influence behavior.

The nurse can improve the patient’s environment and stressors by ensuring the unit is clean and free of noise and unnecessary interruptions. The nurse can help the patient deal with their fears and address their concerns, thus enhancing system balance and stability.

As discussed above, the behavioral system model has been instrumental in nursing practice, especially when caring for chronically ill patients. It enhances holistic nursing practice since the nurse addresses not only the patient’s physical and psychological needs by striving to achieve a behavioral balance. Behavioral balance and stability help achieve and maintain health.


Aşkar, S. E., & Ovayolu, Ö. (2022). Nursing care based on Dorothy Johnson’s Behavioral System Model in Coronary Artery Disease: A case report. Medical Science and Discovery, 9(2), 138-142.

Evgin, D., & Bayat, M. (2020). The Effect of Behavioral System Model Based Nursing Intervention on Adolescent Bullying. Florence Nightingale Journal of Nursing, 28(1), 71–82.

Walker, L. O. (2020). Gifts of wise women: A reflection on enduring ideas in nursing that transcend time. Nursing Outlook, 68(3), 355-364.

Assignment Description: Orlando and the 1950s and 60s

Create a PowerPoint presentation that addresses each of the following points/questions. Be sure to completely answer all the questions for each bullet point. Use clear headings that allow your professor to know which bullet you are addressing on the slides in your presentation. Support your content with at least four (4) outside sources and the textbook using APA citations throughout your presentation.

Make sure to cite the sources using the APA writing style for the presentation. Include a slide for your references at the end. Follow best practices for PowerPoint presentations related to text size, color, images, effects, wordiness, and multimedia enhancements. Review the rubric criteria for this assignment.

Please create a PowerPoint to answer the following:

Case study

Ann, a community nurse, made an afternoon home visit with Susan and her father. After the death of her mother, Susan had growing concerns about her father living alone. “I worry about my father all the time. He is becoming more forgetful and he has trouble seeing. Mom used to take care of him. I am not sleeping and I am irritable around him. Yesterday I shouted at him because he wouldn’t let me help him with his laundry. I felt terrible! I am at my wits’ end! My brothers and sisters do not want to put dad in a nursing home but they are not willing to help out. As usual, they have left me with all the responsibility. I work part time and have two small children to care for.” Susan’s father, Sam, sat quietly with tears filling his eyes. He was well nourished and well-groomed but would not make eye contact. Nurse Ann noticed that the house was clean and orderly. A tray in front of the TV had the remains of a ham sandwich and glass of ice tea. Mail was piled up, unopened on a small table near the front door. There was only one car in the driveway and the yard was in need of attention.

  • What questions does Orlando’s theory guide the nurse to consider in caring for Susan and Sam?
  • Develop a family plan of care from the perspective of Orlando.

Explore the 1950 and 60’s in the United States:

  • Explore was happening in the United States during this time (culture, social, economics, struggles)
  • What did nursing look like during this time (what were their jobs like, responsibilities, dress, autonomy, respect)
  • What is the most influential accomplishment in nursing theory from the 1950’s and 1960’s?