Puerto Rican Woman with Comorbid Addiction Case Study Decisions

Mrs. Perez admits that she has had “problems” with alcohol since her father died in her late teens. She reports that she has struggled with alcohol since her 20’s and has been involved with Alcoholics Anonymous “on and off” for the past 25 years. She states that for the past 2 years, she has been having more and more difficulty maintaining her sobriety since the opening of the new “Rising Sun” casino near her home.

Puerto Rican Woman with Comorbid Addiction Case Study Decisions

Learning Resources

Required Readings

  • Kelly, J. E., & Renner, J. A. (2016). Alcohol-Related disorders. In T. A. Stern, M. Favo, T. E. Wilens, & J. F. Rosenbaum. (Eds.), Massachusetts General Hospital psychopharmacology and neurotherapeutics(pp. 163–182). Elsevier.
  • Renner, J. A., & Ward, N. (2016). Drug addiction. In T. A. Stern, M. Favo, T. E. Wilens, & J. F. Rosenbaum. (Eds.), Massachusetts General Hospital psychopharmacology and neurotherapeutics(pp. 163–182). Elsevier.
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (1999). Treatment of adolescents with substance use disorders: Treatment improvement protocol seriesLinks to an external site., no. 32. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64350/
    • Chapter 1, “Substance Use Among Adolescents”
    • Chapter 2, “Tailoring Treatment to the Adolescent’s Problem”
    • Chapter 7, “Youths with Distinctive Treatment Needs”
  • University of Michigan Health System. (2016). Childhood trauma linked to worse impulse control. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health ServicesLinks to an external site., 54(4), 15.
  • Grant, J. E., Odlaug, B. L., & Schreiber, L. N. (2014). Pharmacological treatments in pathological gambling. British Journal of Clinical PharmacologyLinks to an external site., 77(2), 375–381. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04457.x
  • Hulvershorn, L. A., Schroeder, K. M., Wink, L. K., Erickson, C. A., & McDougle, C. J. (2015). Psychopharmacologic treatment of children prenatally exposed to drugs of abuse. Human PsychopharmacologyLinks to an external site., 30(3), 164–172. https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.2467
  • Loreck, D., Brandt, N. J., & DiPaula, B. (2016). Managing opioid abuse in older adults: Clinical considerations and challenges. Journal of Gerontological NursingLinks to an external site., 42(4), 10–15. https://doi.org/10.3928/00989134-20160314-04
  • Salmon, J. M., & Forester, B. (2012). Substance abuse and co-occurring psychiatric disorders in older adults: A clinical case and review of the relevant literature. Journal of Dual DiagnosisLinks to an external site., 8(1), 74–84. https://doi.org/10.1080/15504263.2012.648439
  • Sanches, M., Scott-Gurnell, K., Patel, A., Caetano, S. C., Zunta-Soares, G. B., Hatch, J. P., Olvera, R., Swann, A. C., & Soares, J. C. (2014). Impulsivity in children and adolescents with mood disorders and unaffected offspring of bipolar parents. Comprehensive PsychiatryLinks to an external site., 55(6), 1337–1341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.04.018

Medication Resources

Note: To access the following medications, use the Drugs@FDA resource. Type the name of each medication in the keyword search bar. Select the hyperlink related to the medication name you searched. Review the supplements provided and select the package label resource file associated with the medication you searched. If a label is not available, you may need to conduct a general search outside of this resource provided. Be sure to review the label information for each medication as this information will be helpful for your review in preparation for your Assignments.

·         naltrexone (revia/vivitrol)·         naloxone

·         acamprosate

·         disulfiram

Required Media

Note: This case study will serve as the foundation for this week’s Assignment.

Optional Resources

  • Lupi, M., Martinotti, G., Acciavatti, T., Pettorruso, M., Brunetti, M., Santacroce, R., Cinose, E., Di Iorio, G., Di Nicola, M., & Di Giannantonio, M. (2014). Pharmacological treatments in gambling disorder: A qualitative review. Biomed Research International2014Links to an external site.. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/537306

Comorbid Addiction (ETOH and Gambling) 53-year-old Puerto Rican Female

Background

Mrs. Maria Perez is a 53 year old Puerto Rican female who presents today due to a rather “embarrassing problem.”

Subjective

Mrs. Perez admits that she has had “problems” with alcohol since her father died in her late teens. She reports that she has struggled with alcohol since her 20’s and has been involved with Alcoholics Anonymous “on and off” for the past 25 years. She states that for the past 2 years, she has been having more and more difficulty maintaining her sobriety since the opening of the new “Rising Sun” casino near her home.

Mrs. Perez states that she and a friend went to visit the new casino during its grand opening at which point she was “hooked.” She states that she gets “such a high” when she is gambling. While gambling, she “enjoys a drink or two” to help calm her during high-stakes games. She states that this often gives way to more drinking and more reckless gambling. She also reports that her cigarette smoking has increased over the past 2 years and she is concerned about the negative effects of the cigarette smoking on her health.

She states that she attempts to abstain from drinking but she gets such a “high” from the act of gambling that she needs a few drinks to “even out.” She also notices that when she drinks, she doesn’t smoke “as much,” but she enjoys smoking when she is playing at the slot machines. She also reports that she has gained weight from drinking so much. She currently weights 122 lbs., which represents a 7 lb. weight gain from her usual 115 lb. weight.

Mrs. Perez is quite concerned today because she borrowed over $50,000 from her retirement account to pay off her gambling debts, and her husband does not know.

Mental Status Exam

The client is a 53 year old Puerto Rican female who is alert and oriented to person, place, time, and event. She is dressed appropriately for the weather and time of year. Her speech is clear, coherent, and goal directed. Her eye contact is somewhat avoidant during the clinical interview. When you make eye contact with her, she looks away or looks down. She demonstrates no noteworthy mannerisms, gestures, or tics.

Her self-reported mood is “sad.” Affect is appropriate to content of conversation and self-reported mood. She denies visual or auditory hallucinations, and no delusional or paranoid thought processes are readily appreciated. Insight and judgment are grossly intact; however, impulse control is impaired. She is currently denying suicidal or homicidal ideation.

Diagnosis: Gambling disorder, alcohol use disorder

Decision Point One

Select what you should do:

Vivitrol (naltrexone) injection, 380 mg intramuscularly in the gluteal region every 4 weeks

Antabuse (disulfiram) 250 mg orally daily

Campral (acamprosate) 666 mg orally three times/day

Decision Point One – Vivitrol (naltrexone) injection, 380 mg intramuscularly in the gluteal region every 4 weeks

Vivitrol (naltrexone) injection, 380 mg intramuscularly in the gluteal region every 4 weeks

Results of Decision Point One

  • Client returns to clinic in four weeks
  • Perez says she feels “wonderful” as she has not “touched a drop” of alcohol since receiving the injection
  • Client reports that she has not been going to the casino, as frequently, but when she does go she “drops a bundle” (meaning, spends a lot of money gambling)
  • Client She is also still smoking, which has her concerned. She is also reporting some problems with anxiety, which also has her concerned

Decision Point Two

Select what you should do next:

Add on Valium (diazepam) 5 mg orally TID/PRN/anxiety

Refer to a counselor to address gambling issues

Add on Chantix (varenicline) 1 mg orally BID

Decision Point Two

Refer to a counselor to address gambling issues

Results of Decision Point Two

Mrs. Perez returns in 4 weeks and reports that the anxiety that she had been experiencing is gone.

She reports that she has met with the counselor, but she did not really like her.

She also started going to a local meeting of Gamblers Anonymous. She states that last week, for the first time, she spoke during the meeting. She reports feeling supported in this group.

Decision Point Three

Select what you should do next:

Explore the issue that Mrs. Perez is having with her counselor, and encourage her to continue attending the Gamblers Anonymous meetings

Encourage Mrs. Perez to continue seeing her current counselor as well as continuing with the Gamblers Anonymous group

Discontinue Vivitrol. Encourage Mrs. Perez to continue seeing her counselor and to continue participating in the Gamblers Anonymous group

Decision Point Three

Explore the issue that Mrs. Perez is having with her counselor, and encourage her to continue attending the Gamblers Anonymous meetings

 Guidance to Student

Although controversy exists in the literature regarding how long to maintain a client on Vivitrol, 8 weeks is probably too soon to consider discontinuation. The psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner should explore the issues that Mrs. Perez is having with her counselor. As will be covered in more depth in future courses, ruptures in the therapeutic alliance can result in clients stopping therapy.

Clearly, if the client does not continue with therapy, the likelihood of the gambling problem spontaneously remitting is lower (than had the client continued to receive therapy). Recall that there are no FDA-approved treatments for gambling addiction. The mainstay of treatment for this disorder is counseling. Since Mrs. Perez reports good perceived support from the Gamblers Anonymous meetings, she should be encouraged to continue her participation with this group.

You need to discuss smoking cessation options with Mrs. Perez in order to address the totality of addictions, and to enhance her overall health.