Sarah is 28 years old and 7 months pregnant with her third child.

Sarah’s Case Study Discussion

Sarah does not have any risk factors for high-risk pregnancy. She is of appropriate age and in her reproductive years. Furthermore, her 2 previous pregnancies were uneventful. The case study also did not mention any history of smoking, alcohol intake, or any underlying comorbidities that could predispose her to a high-risk pregnancy. According to her normal pre-pregnancy BMI of 23, Sarah is expected to gain a total of 25 to 35 lb following the recommendations of The National Institute of Medicine (Davidson et al., 2021).

Sarah is 28 years old and 7 months pregnant with her third child.

Based on the 2400-calorie meal pattern, Sarah being pregnant is expected to take more iron, protein, calcium, magnesium, and folic acid-rich foods (Davidson et al., 2021). The National Institute of Health recommends a minimum of 2450 calories/day, 71g of proteins/day, 54g of fats/ day, and 175g of carbohydrates per day for pregnant women in the 3rd trimester (Haas et al., 2017). Sarah is therefore eating a lot of calories and fats than the recommended amounts. To reduce her heartburn, Sarah needs to avoid spicy foods such as chips and salsa, tuna fish sandwiches with mayonnaise, macaroni with cheese, and orange juice.

I would inform her that weight gain during pregnancy is a normal physiological phenomenon keeping in mind that the weight of the placenta, growing fetus, and amniotic fluid contribute to the weight gain (Mousa et al., 2019). I would further advise her to adhere to a healthy diet and physical activity to regain and maintain her healthy weight. She has an appropriate attitude concerning supplements.

However, I will inform her that iron supplements are elemental to prevent anemia while folic acid supplementation is essential to prevent fetal neural tube defects (Mousa et al., 2019). Sarah can take cheerios, whole milk, and peanut butter- strawberry -kale smoothie for breakfast. Her lunch can be a combination of a medium banana, smashed white beans, cheese, and a whole-wheat English muffin. Her snack can be ice cream, baby carrots, or low-fat yogurt. Finally, her dinner can be summer vegetable chicken tortilla and spinach or green beans and roll and butter.

References

  • Davidson, K. W., Barry, M. J., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Krist, A. H., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C.-W., & Wong, J. B. (2021). Behavioral counseling interventions for healthy weight and weight gain in pregnancy: US preventive services task force recommendation statement: US preventive services task force recommendation statement. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association325(20), 2087–2093. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.6949
  • Haas, S., R., D. N., & L., D. N. (2017, June 13). 1-day healthy-pregnancy meal plan: 2,200 calories. Eatingwell.Com; EatingWell. https://www.eatingwell.com/article/290318/1-day-healthy-pregnancy-meal-plan-2200-calories/
  • Mousa, A., Naqash, A., & Lim, S. (2019). Macronutrient and micronutrient intake during pregnancy: An overview of recent evidence. Nutrients11(2), 443. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11020443