SHADOW HEALTH NEUROLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVE DATA

SHADOW HEALTH NEUROLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

Subjective Data Collection: 20 of 20 (100.0%)

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Hover over the Patient Data items below to reveal important information, including Pro Tips and Example Questions.

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  • Available:

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Scored Items

SHADOW HEALTH NEUROLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVE DATA

Experts selected these topics as essential components of a strong, thorough interview with this patient.

Patient Data

Not Scored

A combination of open and closed questions will yield better patient data. The following details are facts of the patient’s case.

Chief Complaint

Finding:

Established chief complaint

Finding:

Reports recent “fender bender”

(Found)

Pro Tip: Patients choose to seek treatment for a variety of reasons. Asking why Tina chose to seek treatment today might indicate primary concerns, the severity of her symptoms, or failure to manage symptoms herself.

Example Question:

Why are you seeking treatment today?

Finding:

Reports headaches

(Found)

Pro Tip: Symptoms often vary from patient to patient. Asking Tina if she’s had headaches specifies the way her individual symptoms and pain manifest.

Example Question:

Have you had any headaches?

Finding:

Reports neck symptoms

(Found)

Pro Tip: Symptoms often vary from patient to patient. Asking Tina if she’s had neck stiffness specifies the way her individual symptoms and pain manifest.

Example Question:

Have you had any neck stiffness?

History of Present Illness

Finding:

Asked about onset of symptoms

Finding:

Reports accident occurred 1 week ago

(Found)

Pro Tip: Soliciting a relevant history of Tina’s car accident will allow you to understand the context in which she was injured and the injuries she sustained.

Example Question:

When did the accident happen?

Finding:

Reports symptoms began 2 days after accident

(Found)

Pro Tip: Symptoms often vary from patient to patient. Asking Tina when the headaches begin specifies the way her individual symptoms and pain manifest.

Example Question:

When did the headaches begin?

Finding:

Followed up on details of car accident

Finding:

Denies loss of consciousness

(Found)

Pro Tip: Soliciting a relevant history of Tina’s car accident will allow you to understand the context in which she was injured and the injuries she sustained.

Example Question:

Did you lose consciousness during the car accident?

Finding:

Reports low vehicle speed

(Found)

Pro Tip: Soliciting a relevant history of Tina’s car accident will allow you to understand the context in which she was injured and the injuries she sustained.

Example Question:

How fast was the car going?

Finding:

Reports wearing seatbelt

(Found)

Pro Tip: Soliciting a relevant history of Tina’s car accident will allow you to understand the context in which she was injured and the injuries she sustained.

Example Question:

Were you wearing your seatbelt?

Finding:

Reports sitting in front passenger seat

(Found)

Pro Tip: Soliciting a relevant history of Tina’s car accident will allow you to understand the context in which she was injured and the injuries she sustained.

Example Question:

Where in the car were you sitting?

Finding:

Reports no alcohol or drug use during accident

(Found)

Pro Tip: Soliciting a relevant history of Tina’s car accident will allow you to understand the context in which she was injured and the injuries she sustained.

Example Question:

Was anyone in the car under the influence of alcohol?

Finding:

Asked about frequency and duration of symptoms

Finding:

Reports headaches are daily since they began

(Found)

Pro Tip: Symptoms often vary from patient to patient. Asking Tina how often she gets headaches specifies the way her individual symptoms and pain manifest.

Example Question:

How many days have you had a headache since they started?

Finding:

Reports headaches last 1-2 hours

(Available)

Pro Tip: Symptoms often vary from patient to patient. Asking Tina how long the headaches last specifies the way her individual symptoms and pain manifest.

Example Question:

How long do the headaches last?

Finding:

Reports last headache was yesterday afternoon

(Available)

Pro Tip: Symptoms often vary from patient to patient. Asking Tina when she got her last headaches specifies the way her individual symptoms and pain manifest.

Example Question:

When was your last headache?

Finding:

Asked location of pain

Finding:

Reports headache pain in crown and back of head

(Found)

Pro Tip: Because symptoms often vary from patient to patient, asking Tina where her headaches are occurring will allow you to most effectively treat her specific symptoms.

Example Question:

Where are the headaches located?

Finding:

Reports pain does not radiate into shoulders, back, or arms

(Found)

Pro Tip: Symptoms often vary from patient to patient. Asking Tina to describe what her injury feels like specifies the way her symptoms and pain manifest.

Example Question:

Does the pain radiate?

Finding:

Reports slight pain in back of neck muscles

(Available)

Pro Tip: Because symptoms often vary from patient to patient, asking Tina how her neck feels will allow you to see the ways in which her individual pain manifests.

Example Question:

How does your neck feel?

Finding:

Denies scalp tenderness or injury

(Found)

Pro Tip: Symptoms often vary from patient to patient. Asking Tina if her scalp is tender specifies the way her individual symptoms and pain manifest.

Example Question:

Is your scalp tender?

Finding:

Denies jaw symptoms

(Found)

Pro Tip: Symptoms often vary from patient to patient. Asking Tina if her jaw is tender specifies the way her individual symptoms and pain manifest.

Example Question:

Do you have jaw pain?

Finding:

Denies facial pain

(Found)

Pro Tip: Symptoms often vary from patient to patient. Asking Tina if she is experiencing facial pain specifies the way her individual symptoms and pain manifest. SHADOW HEALTH NEUROLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVE DATA

Example Question:

Do you have any facial pain?

Finding:

Asked about severity of pain

Finding:

Rates current head and neck pain severity at 3 out of 10

(Found)

Pro Tip: Pain severity might change over time for a variety of reasons. Asking Tina to rate the severity of her current pain on a scale of 1-10 will provide a quantified and relative measurement of her condition.

Example Question:

How would you rate your current pain on a scale from 0 to 10?

Finding:

Rates pain severity at its worst is 4 out of 10

(Available)

Pro Tip: Pain severity might change over time for a variety of reasons. Asking Tina to rate the severity of her pain when it started on a scale of 1-10 will provide a quantified and relative measurement of her condition.

Example Question:

How would you rate your pain at its worst on a scale from 0 to 10?

Finding:

Followed up on headache characteristics

Finding:

Reports headache pain as a dull ache

(Found)

Pro Tip: Symptoms often vary from patient to patient. Asking Tina to describe what her headaches feel like specifies the way her individual symptoms and pain manifest.

Example Question:

What do your headaches feel like?

Finding:

Denies sharp pain

(Found)

Pro Tip: Because symptoms often vary from patient to patient, asking Tina whether her headaches feel sharp will allow you to most effectively treat her specific symptoms.

Example Question:

Is the headache pain sharp?

Finding:

Reports headaches not cyclic

(Found)

Pro Tip: By understanding the nature of Tina’s pain, you can most effectively treat her. Asking Tina whether her headaches are cyclic will give you a sense for the extent of her pain.

Example Question:

Are your headaches cyclic?

Finding:

Reports headaches do not occur in clusters

(Found)

Pro Tip: By understanding the nature of Tina’s pain, you can most effectively treat her. Asking Tina whether her headaches come in clusters will give you a sense for the extent of her pain.

Example Question:

Do your headaches come in clusters?

Finding:

Reports headaches not rapid in crescendo

(Available)

Pro Tip: By understanding the nature of Tina’s pain, you can most effectively treat her. Asking Tina whether her headaches crescendo will give you a sense for the extent of her pain.

Example Question:

Do your headaches crescendo?

Finding:

Asked about aggravating factors

Finding:

Reports that car accident seems to be primary cause

(Available)

Pro Tip: It’s important to ask the patient if they know the primary cause of an injury.

Example Question:

What caused your pain?

Finding:

Reports pain upon head or neck movement

(Found)

Pro Tip: Symptoms often vary from patient to patient. Asking Tina if it hurts to move her head specifies the way her individual symptoms and pain manifest.

Example Question:

Does it hurt to move your head?

Finding:

Reports headaches don’t have a discernible trigger

(Found)

Pro Tip: Pain severity might change for a variety of reasons. Asking Tina what makes her headaches worse might help you to understand sounds, movements, or times that trigger her pain. SHADOW HEALTH NEUROLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVE DATA

Example Question:

What makes your headaches worse?

Finding:

Asked about relieving factors for neck pain and headaches

Finding:

Denies home remedies such as heat or cold

(Available)

Pro Tip: Finding out the non-medication modalities that a patient is treating her pain with will help you understand the severity of the pain.

Example Question:

Have you tried home remedies?

Finding:

Symptoms improve with rest

(Found)

Pro Tip: Understanding all of the relieving factors, including how a symptom changes at motion or at rest, can help you understand all of the contributing pain factors.

Example Question:

Does the headache get better with rest?

Medical History

Finding:

Confirmed use of medications

Finding:

Confirms medications (no new medications reported)

(Found)

Pro Tip: Determining what, if any, medications a patient is taking is a crucial element of a thorough health history and will help you avoid unwanted drug interactions.

Example Question:

Are you taking any new medications?

Finding:

Reports increased Tylenol use

(Found)

Pro Tip: The amount of pain medication a patient is taking is an important consideration in understanding their level of pain. For a patient who takes pain medication but still experiences pain, it can indicate higher pain severity than she is reporting.

Example Question:

Have you been taking Tylenol?

Finding:

Followed up on Tylenol use

Finding:

Unsure of dosage

(Found)

Pro Tip: The medication that a patient takes reveals a current treatment plan and healthcare access. Asking Tina how much tylenol she takes will illustrate how effectively OTC medication works for her injury.

Example Question:

What dose of tylenol do you take?

Finding:

Takes 2 Tylenol at a time

(Found)

Pro Tip: Asking how many pills a patient takes at once time can help you make sure a patient is not taking an unsafe dose.

Example Question:

How many Tylenol do you take at a time?

Finding:

Takes Tylenol once a day

(Found)

Pro Tip: The medication that a patient takes reveals a current treatment plan and healthcare access. Asking Tina how often she takes tylenol will illustrate how effectively OTC medication works for her injury.

Example Question:

How often do you take tylenol?

Finding:

Reports minor relief from Tylenol

(Found)

Pro Tip: Asking Tina if the Tylenol helps will allow you to assess the severity of her headaches and whether her current treatment plan is effective.

Example Question:

Does the Tylenol help?

Finding:

Confirmed allergies

Finding:

Confirms allergies (no new allergies reported)

(Found)

Pro Tip: Asking Tina if she has any new allergies will allow you to understand how, beyond the chief complaint, Tina’s health has been.

Example Question:

Do you have any new allergies?

Finding:

Asked about relevant neurological history

Finding:

Reports past frequent headaches

(Found)

Pro Tip: Assessing which of Tina’s pain (if any) is “normal” versus caused by the accident will allow you to understand the scope of her injuries.

Example Question:

Do you usually get headaches?

Finding:

Denies history of migraine

(Found)

Pro Tip: Assessing which of Tina’s pain (if any) is “normal” versus caused by the accident will allow you to understand the scope of her injuries.

Example Question:

Do you ever get migraines?

Finding:

Denies head trauma

(Found)

Pro Tip: After Tina’s car accident, it is important to establish whether head trauma she might be experiencing predates the accident or, rather, is a result of the crash.

Example Question:

Have you ever had any head trauma?

Finding:

Denies history of seizures

(Found)

Pro Tip: A car accident can result in a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Asking Tina if she’s had seizures might indicate whether or not she is experiencing symptoms of a traumatic brain injury.

Example Question:

Have you had any seizures?

Social History

Finding:

Asked about sleep

Finding:

Denies changes in sleep

(Found)

Pro Tip: A car accident can result in a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Asking Tina if her sleep habits have changed lately might indicate whether she is experiencing symptoms of a traumatic brain injury. SHADOW HEALTH NEUROLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVE DATA

Example Question:

Have your sleep habits changed?

Finding:

Denies increased sleepiness or yawning

(Found)

Pro Tip: A car accident can result in a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Asking Tina if she’s felt more sleepy lately might indicate whether she is experiencing symptoms of a traumatic brain injury.

Example Question:

Have you felt more sleepy lately?

Review of Systems

Finding:

Asked about general symptoms

Finding:

Denies fever

(Found)

Pro Tip: Following a head injury, asking Tina whether she’s had a fever might indicate if she’s suffered any additional complications to her neck trauma.

Example Question:

Have you had a fever?

Finding:

Denies chills

(Found)

Pro Tip: Chills after a car accident might indicate shock. Asking Tina if she’s had any chills will reveal whether or not she’s had shock following her accident.

Example Question:

Have you had any chills?

Finding:

Denies fatigue or changes in energy level

(Found)

Pro Tip: A car accident can result in a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Asking Tina if she’s felt more fatigued lately might indicate whether she is experiencing symptoms of a traumatic brain injury.

Example Question:

Have you felt fatigued?

Finding:

Denies nausea or vomiting

(Found)

Pro Tip: One symptom of a concussion is nausea. Asking Tina whether she’s felt nausea might reveal that she sustained a concussion in her car accident.

Example Question:

Have you had nausea?

Finding:

Denies night sweats

(Found)

Pro Tip: One symptom of a concussion is nausea. Asking Tina whether she’s been vomiting might reveal that she sustained a concussion in her car accident.

Example Question:

Have you had night sweats?

Finding:

Asked about review of systems for neurological

Finding:

Denies hemiparesis

(Found)

Pro Tip: A car accident can result in muscle damage and feeling weak on one side of the body. Asking Tina whether she feels weak on one side of her body can indicate whether she is suffering from muscle damage.

Example Question:

Has one side of your body felt weaker than the other?

Finding:

Denies gait disturbance

(Found)

Pro Tip: A car accident can result in muscle damage or nerve damage. Asking Tina whether her gait has changed might indicate a muscle or tissue injury that is impacting the way she walks.

Example Question:

Have you had any changes in your gait?

Finding:

Denies body weakness

(Found)

Pro Tip: A car accident can result in muscle damage and feeling weakness. Asking Tina whether she feels weak can indicate whether or not she is suffering from muscle damage.

Example Question:

Have you felt weak?

Finding:

Denies seeing auras or halos

(Found)

Pro Tip: After Tina’s car accident, it is important to establish whether neurological problems she might be experiencing predate the accident or, rather, are a result of the crash. Asking Tina if she’s been seeing auras will indicate whether she’s experiencing a neurological disturbance.

Example Question:

Have you experienced any auras?

Finding:

Denies dizziness, light-headedness, syncope, or disequilibrium

(Found)

Pro Tip: A car accident can result in a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Asking Tina if she’s felt dizzy might indicate whether she is experiencing symptoms of a traumatic brain injury. SHADOW HEALTH NEUROLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVE DATA

Example Question:

Have you felt dizzy?

Finding:

Denies loss of coordination

(Found)

Pro Tip: People with traumatic brain injuries commonly report loss of coordination. Asking Tina whether she’s lost coordination can indicate that she suffered a traumatic brain injury during her accident.

Example Question:

Have you had any loss of coordination?

Finding:

Denies scotoma

(Found)

Pro Tip: People with traumatic brain injuries commonly report scotoma. Asking Tina whether she’s noticed any scotoma can indicate that she suffered a traumatic brain injury during her accident.

Example Question:

Have you noticed any scotoma?

Finding:

Denies numbness or tingling

(Found)

Pro Tip: Tingling sensations after a car accident can suggest a herniated disc. Asking Tina whether she’s experiencing tingling sensations might indicate additional musculoskeletal damage caused by the accident.

Example Question:

Have you had any tingling sensations?

Finding:

Denies facial flushing

(Found)

Pro Tip: A prolonged flush face can indicate cerebral compression. Asking Tina whether her face has been flushed will indicate if she is suffering from head trauma.

Example Question:

Has your face been flushed?

Finding:

Asked about review of systems for psych and behavioral history

Finding:

Denies depression

(Found)

Pro Tip: After an accident, it is not uncommon to feel anxious or depressed. Asking Tina whether she’s felt depressed can indicate long-term concerns following her accident.

Example Question:

Have you felt depressed?

Finding:

Denies increased irritability

(Found)

Pro Tip: One symptom of a concussion is irritability. Asking Tina whether she’s been irritable might reveal that she sustained a concussion in her car accident.

Example Question:

Have you felt more irritable?

Finding:

Denies problems with concentration or memory

(Found)

Pro Tip: One symptom of a concussion is problems concentrating. Asking Tina whether she’s been experiencing problems concentrating might reveal that she sustained a concussion in her car accident.

Example Question:

Have you had any problems concentrating?

Finding:

Denies confusion

(Found)

Pro Tip: One symptom of a concussion is confusion. Asking Tina whether she’s felt confusion might reveal that she sustained a concussion in her car accident.

Example Question:

Have you felt confused?

Finding:

Asked about review of systems for eyes and vision

Finding:

Denies changes in vision since accident

(Found)

Pro Tip: Eye and vision problems are fairly common after a brain injury. Asking Tina whether her vision changed since her accident might indicate that she sustained a head injury.

Example Question:

Has your vision changed since the accident?

Finding:

Reports occasional blurry vision (pre-dating accident)

(Found)

Pro Tip:

Example Question:

Have you ever had blurry vision?

Finding:

Denies unilateral vision disturbance

(Available)

Pro Tip: Eye and vision problems are fairly common after a brain injury. Asking Tina whether she’s had vision problems in just one eye since her accident might indicate that she sustained a head injury. SHADOW HEALTH NEUROLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVE DATA

Example Question:

Have you had any vision problems in just one eye?

Finding:

Denies sensitivity to light

(Found)

Pro Tip: Eye and vision problems are fairly common after a brain injury. Asking Tina whether she is sensitive to light since her accident might indicate that she sustained a head injury.

Example Question:

Are you sensitive to light since the accident?

Finding:

Asked about review of systems for ears, nose, and throat

Finding:

Denies nasal congestion or rhinorrhea

(Available)

Pro Tip: Whiplash from Tina’s car accident might result in congestion and sinus problems. Asking Tina if she’s been congested can indicate that she suffered from whiplash during the accident.

Example Question:

Have you had any congestion?

Finding:

Denies tinnitus

(Found)

Pro Tip: Tinnitus, or hearing ringing, can result from the loudness of a car accident. Asking Tina whether she’s hearing ringing can indicate whether she is suffering from Tinnitus.

Example Question:

Have you had ringing in your ears?

Finding:

Denies changes in hearing

(Found)

Pro Tip: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Losses can be associated with head trauma caused by car accidents. Asking Tina if she’s experiencing hearing loss can indicate possible head trauma.

Example Question:

Have you had any hearing loss?

Finding:

Denies difficulty swallowing

(Found)

Pro Tip: Whiplash from Tina’s car accident might result in damage to the soft tissue of her neck. Asking Tina if she is having trouble swallowing might suggest an injury that she sustained in the crash.

Example Question:

Have you had any difficulty swallowing?

Family History

Finding:

Asked about relevant family history

Finding:

Denies family history of migraine

(Found)

Pro Tip: Some causes of migraines can be inherited, and so it’s important to understand your patient’s risk level.

Example Question:

Is there a history of migraines in your family?

Finding:

Denies family history of epilepsy or seizures

(Found)

Pro Tip: Epilepsy or other forms of seizures can be inherited, and so it’s important to understand your patient’s risk level.

Example Question:

Do you have a family history of epilepsy?

Denies family history of epilepsy or seizures (Found)

Subjective Action

Pro Tip: Epilepsy or other forms of seizures can be inherited, and so it’s important to understand your patient’s risk level.

Example Question: “Do you have a family history of epilepsy?”

Finding:

Denies family history of Alzheimer’s disease

(Found)

Pro Tip: Conditions like Alzheimer’s disease can be inherited, and so it’s important to understand your patient’s risk level. SHADOW HEALTH NEUROLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVE DATA

Example Question:

Do you have a family history of Alzheimer’s disease?

Finding:

Denies family history of Parkinson’s disease

Documentation / Electronic Health Record

Model Documentation

Subjective

HPI: Ms. Jones presents to the clinic complaining of a headache and neck stiffness that started 2 days after she was in a minor fender bender. One week ago she states that she was a restrained passenger in an accident in a parking lot and estimates the speed to be approximately 5-10 mph. She and the driver did not seek emergent care and felt fine after the accident. Two days later, however, she developed a bilateral temporal dull ache accompanied by neck ache. She states that she feels as though her neck may be slightly swollen as well. She did not lose consciousness in the accident and denies changes in level of consciousness since that time. She states that she gets a headache every day that lasts approximately 1-2 hours. She occasionally takes 650 mg of over the counter Tylenol with relief of the pain. She denies known associated symptoms.

Review of Systems: General: Denies changes in weight, fatigue, weakness, fever, chills, and night sweats. • Head: Denies history of trauma before this incident. Denies current headache. • Eyes: She does not wear corrective lenses, but notes that her vision has been worsening over the past few years, but no acute changes. She complains of blurry vision after reading for extended periods. Denies increased tearing or itching. • Ears: Denies hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, discharge, or earache. • Nose/Sinuses: Denies rhinorrhea. Denies stuffiness, sneezing, itching, previous allergy, epistaxis, or sinus pressure. • Musculoskeletal: Denies muscle weakness, pain, difficulties with range of motion, joint instability, or swelling. • Neurologic: Denies loss of sensation, numbness, tingling, tremors, weakness, paralysis, fainting, blackouts, or seizures. Denies bowel or bladder dysfunction. Denies changes in concentration, sleep, coordination, appetite.

Objective

General: Ms. Jones is a pleasant, obese 28-year-old African American woman in no acute distress, but appears uncomfortable while sitting in exam chair. She is alert and oriented. She maintains eye contact throughout interview and examination.

  • Head: Head is normocephalic and atraumatic
  • Eyes: Bilateral eyes with equal hair distribution.
  • Neurologic: Sense of smell intact and symmetric. Left eye vision: 20/20. Right eye vision: 20/40. Left fundoscopic exam reveals sharp disc margins, no hemorrhages. Right fundoscopic exam reveals mild retinopathic changes. Pupils equal, round, and reactive to light bilaterally. Extraocular movements intact bilaterally. Normal convergence. Facial sensation intact; facial features and symmetric. Rinne and Weber tests normal bilaterally. Gag reflex intact. Ability to shrug shoulders symmetric; 5 strength against resistance. Neck with full range of motion against resistance; 5 strength against resistance. Tongue symmetric with no abnormal findings. Bilateral upper and lower extremity DTRs equal and 2+ bilaterally. Point-to-point movements smooth and accurate for finger-to-nose and heel-to-shin. Rapid alternating movements of the upper extremities intact bilaterally. Gait steady with continuous, symmetric steps. Sensation intact to bilateral upper and lower extremities; sense of extremity position intact. Stereognosis and graphesthesia intact bilaterally.

Assessment

Acute post-traumatic headache following low-speed MVA where Ms. Jones was a restrained passenger

Plan

Diagnostics

None at the moment

Medication

Initiate treatment with Ibuprofen 800 mg by mouth every 8 hours as needed with food for the next five days. SHADOW HEALTH NEUROLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVE DATA

Education

  1. Encourage Ms. Jones to continue to monitor symptoms and report any increase frequency or severity of her headaches.
  2. Ms. Jones can also adjunct therapy of topical heat or ice per per comfort TIPQID
  3. Educate on mild stretches for upper and back and neck.
  4. Educate on when to seek emergent care including the worst headache of her life, acute changes in vision, hearing, or consciousness, episodes of nausea or vomiting associated with headache, numbness, tingling, or paralysis of new onset.

Consultations/Referral

Ask Ms. Jones to call the office in two days to disucss symptoms. If no decrease in symptoms, order a computerized tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging.

Revisit clinic in 5-7 days for follow up and evaluation.

LifespanActivity Time: 19 min

Tina’s three-year-old neighbor presents to the clinic with fever, neck pain, headache, and confusion. He has no symptoms of an upper respiratory infection. The parents mention that they do not believe in immunizations. Based on the information given, what diagnosis is of the greatest concern? What is your next action?

Student Response: The greatest concern here would be meningitis. This is particularly since they are not up to date with the necessity of immunizations. Thus, the next course of action would be to conduct a blood test and imaging tests on the child.

Model Note: Bacterial Meningitis needs to be ruled out immediately. He has not had immunizations which puts him at increased risk for meningitis from Haemophilus influenzae type B. Seizure disorder does not cause fever. Children with immunodeficiency syndrome are at increased risk for meningitis but this child has no previous history of chronic infections. Although children with strep throat can present with fever and neck pain, they are not confused. He needs an immediate spinal tap to determine the nature of the meningitis, and broad spectrum antibiotics should be started as soon as possible. He should be sent to the emergency room.

Tina’s 83-year-old great uncle forgets where he is during his yearly check-up. He doesn’t remember if he’s had memory problems before and no family members came to your office with him. List your differential diagnosis. What assessments would you perform?

Student Response: The differential diagnosis here would be dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s condition. The assessments would be The Min-Cog Test and Clock Draw Test.

Model Note: Differential diagnosis includes stroke, transient ischemic attack, dementia, infection, electrolyte imbalance, dehydration and drug toxicity. The provider should do a neurological assessment to rule out stroke and TIA. Visualization of mucous membranes and skin assessment for tenting is indicated to rule out dehydration. A urinalysis should be performed to rule out a urinary tract infection which is a common cause of confusion in the elderly. He should be asked questions about his medication intake and medical history in case he retains some memory. If he is completely disoriented, family members should be contacted, if possible, to gain more information.

Review QuestionsActivity Time: 6 min

To assess spinal levels L2, L3 and L4 in Tina, which deep tendon reflexes would have to be tested? SHADOW HEALTH NEUROLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVE DATA

Correct: The patellar deep tendon reflex involves the sensory and motor nerve fibers associated with spinal segments L2, L3, and L4. Location of abnormal reflexes may be helpful in identifying neurological pathologies of the spine.

  • Achilles
  • Biceps
  • Patellar (Correct Response)
  • Triceps

Imagine that you were preparing to irrigate a Foley catheter of a patient with a spinal cord injury at T4 in a urology clinic. Upon moving the leg bag, the patient became suddenly flushed and diaphoretic above the nipple line. What would you suspect was happening?

Incorrect: Autonomic dysreflexia is the sudden increase in blood pressure caused by dysregulation of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems reacting to a noxious stimulus below the site of spinal injury. Other symptoms include bradycardia, anxiety, blurred vision, headache, flushing, and sweating. The noxious stimulus (pulling of the Foley catheter) should be alleviated to resolve the condition.

  • Odynophagia (Student Response)
  • Febrile reaction
  • Idiopathic spinal reaction
  • Autonomic dysreflexia (Correct Response)

Which of the following is not a common symptom of Parkinson’s disease?

Incorrect: Parkinson’s disease is characterized by tremors at rest, bradykinesia, cogwheel rigidity, postural instability, festination, lack of facial expression, reduced arm swing, autonomic and neuroendocrine dysfunctions, and a variety of psychological issues such as depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances.

  • Lack of facial expression (Student Response)
  • Festination
  • Cogwheel rigidity
  • Intention tremors (Correct Response)

Name at least three ways to assess cerebellar function during a physical exam. SHADOW HEALTH NEUROLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVE DATA

Student Response: Observe the patient walking Walk heel-to-toe to assess balance Romberg’s test.

Model Note: The cerebellum is responsible for smooth and accurate coordination of voluntary movements. You can test cerebellar function by assessing gait and by instructing the patient to perform the finger-to-finger, finger-to-nose, heel-to-shin, rapid alternating movements, and Romberg tests.

If Tina had a fever and photophobia, you would have had to test for meningitis. Describe how you would have tested for the Kernig’s sign.

Student Response: In order to do the Kernig sign, I would have the person lie flat on the back, flex the thigh so that it is at a right angle to the trunk, and completely extend the leg at the knee joint.

Model Note: The test for Kernig’s sign is used to identify meningeal irritation. To perform the test, flex the leg at the knee and hip when the patient is supine, making a right angle with the flexed knee. Then attempt to straighten the leg at the knee. Resistance and pain in the lower back constitute a positive Kernig’s sign, indicating meningeal irritation.

Suppose you assessed pain sensation over Tina’s left foot, and noticed that she had decreased sensation. How would you have proceeded with your exam?

Student Response: I would have assessed bilateral sensations staring at her feet and proceeding up her legs.

Model Note: Because Tina is at risk for diabetic neuropathy, it is important to assess bilateral sensations starting at her feet and proceeding up the legs. Sensation tests should include sharp and dull touch, light touch, vibration, temperature, point location, and positioning of joints. Superficial and deep tendon reflexes of the feet, ankles, and knees should also be assessed to determine the extent of her neuropathy.

Self-Reflection Activity Time: 8 min SHADOW HEALTH NEUROLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVE DATA

Explicitly describe the tasks you undertook to complete this exam.

Student Response: In the present assignment, I undertook the following: Mental status testing, Cranial Nerves., Muscle strength, tone and bulk, Reflexes, Coordination, Sensory Function and Gait.These assignments were undertaken in order to determine abnormalities in the patient.

Explain the clinical reasoning behind your decisions and tasks.

Student Response: Undertaking focused assessment allowed the present nurse to address the focused symptoms and concerns. The decision to undertake various processes was informed by the need to maximize their comfort, avoid unnecessary alterations in position and enhance clinical efficiency.

Identify how your performance could be improved and how you can apply “lessons learned” within the assignment to your professional practice.

Student Response: In this assignment, my performance could have improved by ensuring that I become more keen while conducting the physical assessment. I have learnt several lessons one of them being that the neurological assessment is kind of different from other assessments. To this end. I would ensure that I conduct a more thorough examination and focused interview during this assessment.