Theoretical Foundations Paper

Theoretical foundations are based on many ideas, including phenomena, concepts, prepositions, and assumptions. A theoretical foundation is a peer-reviewed, formal and theoretical model used to explain the various concepts in research. Theoretical foundations provide the lens to evaluate the research questions and research problems (SUZUKI et al., 2019 Theoretical Foundations Paper). It begins with determining a concept that has been overlooked and provides better clarity of the topic by researching the ideas on the topic before the research. This paper defines phenomena, concepts, propositions, and assumption provides an example for the four ideas, and describes the relationship between the ideas in forming a testable theory.

Theoretical Foundations Paper

Definition of Terms


Phenomena are observable acts or events. Immanuel Kant defined phenomenon to differentiate it from noumenon (Qutoshi, 2018). Unlike a phenomenon, noumenon cannot be directly observed. The phenomenon may include the things one can witness with their five senses (sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing) (Qutoshi, 2018). An example of a phenomenon is a patient falling. The phenomenon can involve both the sight and hearing senses. The phenomena are equally interpreted across various groups of people as long as they have the senses.


A concept is an act of classifying behaviors, objects, and other entities of similar properties. In short, a concept is an idea of something. Memory researchers define it as a unit stored in memory (Schweiker et al., 2020). Concepts may be driven by the environment and may have different meanings from one culture to another. It may include some ideas that have not been fully proven but may show some relationships between events.


Proposition refers to the formulation of a possible answer to a given scientific question (Schweiker et al., 2020). It deals with pure concepts and may not need to be approved or disapproved using experiments. However, propositions may be a statement in which research concepts may be either true or false, depending on their baselines. Propositions substitute hypotheses in research if the research is exploratory. It may be the testable part of a theory.


Assumptions are concepts that are accepted as accurate despite not being tested (Schweiker et al., 2020). The assumptions are assumed to be true in a given population and are only related to them. Assumptions are least negotiable and may clinch on pure belief that a group of people has accepted them. For instance, people may assume that one is a nerd when they wear glasses, which might not be true.

Example in Day-to-Day Practice in Renal Ward

Fainting and dizziness are phenomena that one is likely to encounter during dialysis. The idea falls in the concept that the patients with kidney problems present with edema and are put under anti-hypertensive medications leading to hypotension. The proposition is dialysis worsens the hypotension in kidney problem patients leading to dizziness and fainting. An assumption is that the patients taken to dialysis are honest in reporting their cases of dizziness and cases of fainting and that dialysis contributes to fainting and dizziness.

The fainting and dizziness phenomena occur in dialysis since the kidney problems possibly have hypo-tension due to taking the anti-hypertensives (Ratchford & Evans, 2017). Dialysis usually leads to lower blood pressure in the process, which worsens the already existing hypotension and lowers blood supply to the brain prompting fainting (Ratchford & Evans, 2017). Dizziness is self-reported by the patients and may not be accurately reported. However, the assumption is that the explanations by the patients are accurately reported and picked by the medics. The assumption also is that the fainting could not have occurred if the treatment option could not have opted for dialysis.

Combining the Ideas to Form Testable Theory

The four ideas are interrelated in research to help in coming up with a theory. A phenomenon is an observable event. A concept gives a name to the phenomena. A proposition shows how various occurrences are linked, and an assumption gives information that is acceptable as the truth and relates to the phenomena. A theory is a supposition that is made based on limited evidence that will need further evaluation. The four ideas give the evidence concerning a given occurrence, while a theory tries to test the relationship that is claimed by the proposition. The proposition gives a claim that can be the testable theory that can be testable through research. A testable theory provides a window for research to determine whether a claim by other people is either true or falls.


The theoretical foundation provides maps within which research are done. The theoretical foundation consists of four ideas, namely phenomena, concept,

preposition, and assumptions. The four ideas are relatable and contribute to the formation of a testable hypothesis. A phenomenon is an observable act witnessed by the five senses, a concept attaches meaning to the phenomena. The proposition relates the phenomena to other occurrences, while the assumption is a concept that is taken to be true despite lacking test evidence.

References for Theoretical Foundations Paper

  • Qutoshi, S. (2018). Phenomenology: A Philosophy and Method of Inquiry. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 5(1).
  • Ratchford, E., & Evans, N. (2017). Approach to Lower Extremity Edema. Current Treatment Options In Cardiovascular Medicine19(3).
  • Schweiker, M., André, M., Al-Atrash, F., Al-Khatri, H., Alprianti, R., & Alsaad, H., Amin, R., Ampatzi, E., Arsano, A. Y., Azadeh, M., Azar, E., Bahareh, B., Batagarawa, A., Becker, S., Buonocore, C., Cao, B., Choi, J-H., Chun, C., Daanen, H., … Zomorodian, Z. (2020). Evaluating assumptions of scales for subjective assessment of thermal environments – Do laypersons perceive them the way, we researchers believe?. Energy And Buildings211, 109761.
  • Suzuki, Y., Nakata, T., & Dekeyser, R. (2019). The Desirable Difficulty Framework as a Theoretical Foundation for Optimizing and Researching Second Language Practice. The Modern Language Journal, 103(3), 713-720.