NRS 550 Topic 2 Discussions Biostatistics

NRS 550 Topic 2 Discussions Biostatistics

DQ1- Explain the value of biostatistics in population health research. Describe the role of epidemiology in researching and addressing population health challenges. How are epidemiology and biostatistics significant to your evidence-based practice proposal?

NRS 550 Topic 2 Discussions Biostatistics

DQ2- Consider ecological and global issues, social determinants of health, principles of genetics, and genomics. Explain how translational research can be applied in these areas to address the burden of global disease.

DQ1- Explain the value of biostatistics in population health research

Biostatistics avail critical data/information to healthcare professionals to make critical decisions regarding diseases and public health. Solving and safeguarding public health require researchers to draw inferences from the information and data gathered. Researchers use biostatistics to design clinical research studies with a view to finding interventions/solutions to public health problems (Weiss et al., 2018). Some of the functions of biostatistics are to design clinical trials, assess the effectiveness of public health programs, measuring the efficacy of medical drugs, and developing effective treatments based on evidence-based care.

  1. The role of epidemiology in researching and addressing population health challenges.

Epidemiology is critical in evaluating the patterns and distribution of diseases. Epidemiology deals with the patterns, distribution, and determinants of health in a given population. This branch of medicine studies how diseases are found, how they spread, and are controlled in a population. Concerning population health, epidemiology helps researchers understand the impact of a disease in a population (Brownson, Fielding, & Green, 2018).

For example, through epidemiology, people can know the size of a population affected by a disease, how the numbers are changing with time, and the overall impact of the disease on the economy and social life. Concerning research, epidemiological research methods are used in identifying the risks factors in public health. These research methods are also critical in the surveillance of diseases in populations.

iii. How are epidemiology and biostatistics significant to your evidence-based practice proposal?

I use biostatistics in clinical trials to find outpatient outcomes. As an advanced nursing practitioner, I must always strive to give effective interventions/solutions to patients. These new treatments and diagnostic methods use biostatistics to measure their efficacy as well as performing analysis on all clinical interventions. Besides, using biostatistics can help understand if there is a link between a cause and the effects of diseases or not. Based on this analogy, biostatistics is significant to my evidence-based practice proposal because it leads to improved patient outcomes while boosting the efficacy and efficiency of healthcare programs.

DQ2- Explain how translational research can be applied to ecological and global issues, social determinants of health, principles of genetics, and genomic to address the burden of global disease.

Translational Research and Ecological Problems

Translational research helps researchers in creating viable solutions and interventions for ecological problems. Regarding ecological problems, scientists and other environmental collaborators can use translational research to create research that helps to address environmental challenges. Translational ecology brings together stakeholders in interest in the environment to collaboratively come up with scientific research aimed at improving/conserving the environment (Sylvia, & Demas, 2017). Finding solutions to environmental problems also mean a reduction in the numerous public health problems. For example, many diseases stem from environmental degradation. Conserving the environment will help to keep at bay some of the public health problems. For example, respiratory problems.

Translational research and Determinants of Health

Translational research can be used to research how social determinants of health impact populations. Disparities in health impact negatively on public health. Concerning social determinants of health, translational research can be used to tackle the problem of health disparities and achieving health equity. A big number of health disparities are caused by the difference in population groups. The most common social and demographic factors responsible for health disparities are economic status, culture, gender, employment, education, upbringing, and physical environment. Translational research can be used to research how social determinants of health impact populations. Besides, the research can recommend solutions to tackle the health disparities caused by the disparities mentioned above.

Translational Research and Genomics

Translational research can be used to improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients through improved genetics and genomics technology. Today, the world is awash with numerous breakthroughs in both biotechnology and basic sciences-all leading to improved patient outcomes. Technologies such as proteomic techniques, biomedical engineering, cellular biology, and genetic engineering are some of the recent breakthroughs in science that have impacted positively on people’s health. Translational research has made it possible for researchers to develop tools used for tumor DNA sequencing. Based on these technologies it is possible for health professionals to carry out a more precise and elaborate therapy based on a person’s condition.

Translational Research and Genetics 

Human genetics is at the core of translational research. In human genetics, the objective of translational research is to identify the sequences of DNAs that pose a risk of common human diseases. Translational research help medics to use genetics in critical areas such as disease categorization, disease conditions, and their characterization (Fishman et al., 2017). Using DNA technology healthcare professionals are able to analyze diseases that pose risks to public health and appropriately identify them before recommending any action. Besides, genetics help healthcare professionals to use modern technologies in combating public health problems leading to better health outcomes for populations.

NRS 550 Topic 2 Discussions Biostatistics References

  • Brownson, R. C., Fielding, J. E., & Green, L. W. (2018). Building Capacity for Evidence-Based Public Health: Reconciling the Pulls of Practice and the Push of Research. Annual Review Of Public Health, 39, 27–53.
  • Fishman, C. E., Mohebnasab, M., Van Setten, J., Zanoni, F., Wang, C., Deaglio, S., Amoroso, A., Callans, L., van Gelder, T., Lee, S., Kiryluk, K., Lanktree, M. B. & Keating, B. J. (2019). Genome-wide study updates in the international genetics and translational research in transplantation Network (iGeneTRAiN). Frontiers in Genetics, 10, 1084. doi:10.3389/fgene.2019.01084
  • Sylvia, K. E., & Demas, G. E. (2017). A return to wisdom: using sickness behaviors to integrate ecological and translational research. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 57(6), 1204-1213.
  • Weiss, M. E., Bobay, K. L., Johantgen, M., & Shirey, M. R. (2018). Aligning evidence-based practice with translational research: Opportunities for clinical practice research. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, 48(9), 425-431.

NUR 550 Topic 4 Benchmark – Evidence-Based Practice Project: PICOT Paper

Nurses play a vital role in improving population health and safety. They are the professionals close to the patients, and they interact from admission to discharge. They assess patient populations and determine their needs. They then develop change interventions focusing on these problems and improving their health and safety. Evidence-based care is the basis for all healthcare interventions, and research is its key component. This essay analyzes medication errors in critical care and proposes a change intervention to manage the problem.

Population Demographics and other Factors

Critical care unit patients are often facing life-threatening illnesses/ conditions. Critical care areas are often unconscious, so their involvement in care is compromised. Patients in other units can identify a drug they do not normally take and question it, leading to near misses. However, those in critical care areas are often unaware of their immediate environment and cannot participate in care decisions (Alghamdi et al., 2021). In addition, they have compromised immunity and increased susceptibility. Most patients in ICU have chronic or acute severe conditions such as end-stage renal disease, respiratory and cardiovascular failure, multiple organ system failures, and bleeding disorders.

These diseases lead to marked immune compromise; hence, patients can easily succumb to slight deviations in their health than individuals in other units. In addition, the education used in critical care for emergency response, routine care, and facilitating activities such as systemic and regional anesthesia, benzodiazepines, opioids, and central-acting antihypertensives have low therapeutic indexes. Medication errors in these units are thus likely to be more severe than in other units. These factors and population characteristics expose individuals’ medication errors and the severe consequences of medication errors. According to Alghamdi et al. (2021), critical care units report the most medication errors, which are most severe in critical care units. They report the most deaths and morbidities from the disease.

Proposed Intervention

The proposed intervention is barcode medication administration. The intervention requires nurses to confirm medication against a digital patient wristband using a scanner before administration of medications to ensure these medications belong to the patients before administration (Mulac et al., 2021). Barcode medication administration technology is an easy way of confirming medication, especially with patient identification, and ensures that patients get the right medication. The intervention fulfills the institutional policies that require nurses to cross-check patient details before administering the medications (Mulac et al., 2021). In some cases, medication errors occur when nurses do not identify patients correctly, especially when patients share cabinets or closely related medications.

Comparison/Previous Interventions

In contemporary practice, care providers have utilized computerized prescription order entry (CPOE) technologies to minimize transcription and dispatch errors. The order entries help care providers cross-check details, transfer information electronically to other care providers, and eliminate the need for written orders (Srinivasamurthy et al., 2021). The system also helps flag any medication errors, such as wrong dosing and is thus helpful for various purposes, such as evidence in insurance claims. The technology limitation is that it does not prevent medication administration errors during dispensing, hence the need for adjunct intervention. Nurses present the dispensing error by cross-checking details, alone or with a companion. The routine practice faces major problems, such as the hasty nature of the acute care setting and the widespread nurse shortage, which minimizes precision.

Expected Outcome of the Intervention

Barcode medication administration aims to ensure patient safety through proper medication administration with prompt error prevention. Medication errors occur primarily anywhere between prescribing and dispensing the medication to the patient. Barcode medication administration reduces errors during dispatch by ensuring that the medication information during prescription matches the patients’ details (Srinivasamurthy et al., 2021). Barcode medication administration supplements other technologies, preventing errors at other points of care. The expected outcomes are increased error reporting in cases, for example, when pharmacists dispatch the wrong medications for patients. The technology evaluation will then be based on these expected outcomes (increased error reporting and reduced medication errors).

Influence of nursing science, social determinants of health, and epidemiologic, genomic, and genetic data

Medication errors are a huge menace that nurses’ roles should promptly address, including patient safety, and they are the most critical professionals in administering medications. The intervention should also incorporate nurses’ education on the technology for its successful implementation (Xie et al., 2018). Xie et al. (2019) note that a lack of knowledge may hinder the technology’s implementation because professionals tend to reject, dislike, and intentionally ignore technologies they do not understand. The technology should also consider personal patient differences, such as patient education and cultural diversity. Understanding medical interventions may be compromised. Explaining to patients what and why the technology is used is thus vital (Xie et al., 2018). Patient education enhances collaboration and prevents a strained relationship between patients and care providers. 

In contemporary practice, individuals with similar names may become a problem for care providers and drug administration. The event is rare but can cause medication errors, including sentinel events. It is important to appreciate the role of genetics and genomics in medication administration. During the project, the care providers should identify confounders affected by genomics and genetics, such as drug reactions, allergies, and therapeutic doses, which should be distinguished from medication errors. In addition, the interventions should also pay attention to the neediest areas depending on the hospital’s epidemiologic data to ensure resources are used productively.


Critical care patients are more vulnerable to medication errors than the rest due to their demographics and environmental characteristics. These patients use medications prone to errors, are limited in their participation in care delivery, are majorly immunocompromised, and the environment requires haste. Barcode medication administration will promote patient safety and reduce medication errors by ensuring accurate information confirmation before administration. The technology will also increase medication error reporting, especially near misses. Other interventions, such as CPOE, will support the technology and prevent medication errors. The intervention will also appreciate the role of nursing, genetics, social determinants of health, and epidemiologic data to promote care outcomes and manage medication errors.

NRS 550 Topic 2 Discussions Biostatistics References

Alghamdi, A. A., Keers, R. N., Sutherland, A., & Ashcroft, D. M. (2019). Prevalence and nature of medication errors and preventable adverse drug events in pediatric and neonatal intensive care settings: a systematic review. Drug Safety, 42(12), 1423-1436d.

Marvanova, M., & Henkel, P. J. (2018). Collaborating on medication errors in nursing. The Clinical Teacher, 15(2), 163-168.

Mulac, A., Mathiesen, L., Taxis, K., & Granås, A. G. (2021). Barcode medication administration technology used in hospital practice: a mixed-methods observational study of policy deviations. BMJ Quality & Safety, 30(12), 1021-1030.

Srinivasamurthy, S. K., Ashokkumar, R., Kodidela, S., Howard, S. C., Samer, C. F., & Chakradhara Rao, U. S. (2021). Impact of computerized physician order entry (CPOE) on the incidence of chemotherapy-related medication errors: a systematic review. European Journal Of Clinical Pharmacology, 77(8), 1123–1131.

Xie, N., Kalia, K., Strudwick, G., & Lau, F. (2019). Understanding mental health nurses’ perceptions of barcode medication administration: a qualitative descriptive study. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 40(4), 326-334.

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