HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper

  1. Give examples of psychosocial factors that affect the health care professional and the effect those factors could have on patient education.

Problems in private life and lack of social support can make the health care provider feel overwhelmed, when trying to strike a balance between meeting the social needs or requirements and providing patient education. Marital status can determine patient education in that single parents find it more difficult to meet their parental obligations while at the same time providing patient education as opposed to those who are married or are not yet married.

Similarly, social disruptions like divorce can compromise the professional’s morale in providing patient education (Hansberry, Agarwal, & Baker, 2015). Some healthcare providers feel inadequate to handle psychosocial factors because they cannot identify with the patient, however, it is important they are considered because without taking the patients feeling and beliefs into consideration, to assure appropriate education and compliance (Falvo, 2011).

HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper

  1. Give examples of psychosocial factors that affect the patient and the effect those factors could have on patient education. HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper

Every individual has attributes that are the norm for them, and everyone has different values in life. These attributes with ways of living and how they live are determined by their life experiences or experiences of others close to them, their culture, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, and age (Falvo, 2011). Patients psychosocial factors can influence the perception of the education provided to them. For example, a patient who does not have a support system of family and/or friends may be suffering from loneliness, depression or despair, may have given up and not value education to improve their health because they no longer value their life.

  1. Explain what is meant by personality styles and give examples of approaches that could be used to help the patient. Include self-perception as a

Every individual has a unique and different personality style that influences the way they interact with others, how they respond to life experiences, how they perceive illness, respond to it, and receive education and collaboration of care. Understanding different personality styles such as the one who feels the need to be in control, the one who is passive about education and just wants to get to the end result of their treatment and goals, the one who is insecure and needs reassurance exhibited by demanding information and seeking large amounts of time with the healthcare provider (Falvo, 2011).

Self-perception or the way individuals view themselves and/or their illness is also an element of personality styles. Some patients are guilt with the habits or behaviors contributing to the illness like smoking or substance use (Hansberry, Agarwal, & Baker, 2015 HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper). Others are stoic and begin to lament that they have never been to a doctor or care professional before while some patients are common with their condition ad believe that they can simply get through it.

  1. List the steps in adjustment to illness and how the patient copes with each step.

Denial: patients at this stage believe that the disease can hurt them and result in refusal to take medications or non-compliance to other therapies. HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper

Anger: patients are angry that they are among the smaller proportion of people to get the disease. They tend to cope by finding outlets to anger by being aggressive, accusing others and other practices (Hansberry, Agarwal, & Baker, 2015 HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper).

Fear: patients are afraid that they may not survive through the disease or that they may not recover. They are afraid that the therapies may not work and try to cope by obtaining knowledge or through education. Otherwise, they may try to get depressed and withdraw from places and people they love.

Grief: at this stage, patients are in grief due to feelings of loss, economic downfalls, broken plans, and delayed achievements. They may express this through regretting and lamenting. HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper

Acceptance: patients come into terms with their conditions, adhere to medications and other therapies, and live positively (Hansberry, Agarwal, & Baker, 2015).

  1. Explain the health professional’s role in teaching the patient at different life

The health professional teaching a child must focus on interaction with the child to build trust as the child will likely be fearful of someone they do not know. The adolescent or teenager has different learning needs according to their development. A teen may be apprehensive or uncomfortable about talking to a healthcare professional, and the healthcare professional must be aware of this and approach the teen patient in ways that will lower their apprehension and feel less awkward. The health professional could ask the teen about school, their likes, sports, classes, and hobbies. The health professional must also be aware that self-image and acceptance of peers is important to the adolescent and teen, and any factor that could alter their self-image must be modified according this need (Falvo, 2011).

The elderly adult is at another stage where they may be anxious about declining health, and the healthcare professional should be aware of fear and end of life factors. It is important for the healthcare professional to understand this age group may be facing various loss of different kinds including loss of vocation as a result of retirement, loss of friends, loss of a spouse, loss of family such as children and/or grand-children that may not come to see them often, loss of independence, loss of health, and financial concerns all play a part in the degree of stress or individual experience (Falvo, 2011 HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper).

  1. Define the role of the family in patient education.

Family is central to an individual’s beliefs, attitudes about health, lifestyle, and health care, and family is an important factor in patient education (Falvo, 2011). The health care professional must be aware that families often help patients in making important healthcare decisions as a crucial part of their support system, and therefore make education a family-focused part of teaching. Health care provider must also be perceptive to family dynamics and relationships, considering the extent of which family members can take an active role in offering assistance, support, and encouragement (Falvo, 2011 HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper).

  1. How might the family influence the compliance of the patient and what measures can the health care professional use in communication with the family?

Family support is a crucial component to any patient facing illness, as support or lack of can influence how well the patient will proceed in compliance, and in turn, with good outcomes in their health. It is important to determine the supportive members of the family and factors such as who attends the appointments with the patient, what is the family members interaction with the patient? Are there any other stressors in the family that influence support and compliance? The nurse should talk to the patient about supportive family members and observe family interactions for cues on family dynamics. Healthcare professionals should use communication with the family by asking about concerns they may have and what they consider to be major obstacles or problems, be observant and sensitive to verbal and non-verbal ques in response to education (Falvo, 2011 HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper).

References for HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper

Falvo, D. (2011). Effective patient education – A guide to increased adherence (4th edition). Jones and Bartlett Publishers. http://gcumedia.com/digital- resources/jonesandbartlett/2010/effective-patient-education_-a-guide-to-increased- adherence_ebook_4e.php

Hansberry, D. R., Agarwal, N., & Baker, S. R. (2015). Health literacy and online educational resources: an opportunity to educate patients. American Journal of Roentgenology, 204(1), 111-116. https://www.ajronline.org/doi/full/10.2214/AJR.14.13086

Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory Sample Essay

Nursing has existed throughout the years, responding to the holistic needs of patients and clients. Nursing has undergone many struggles for recognition as a reputable and autonomous profession. The struggle is sculpted in the pages of our nation’s and world’s history. Where science fails to explain human beings’ origin and nature fully, ethics and religion play a vital role. Furthermore, healthcare providers and patients hold different worldviews on nature and perspectives about human beings, affecting service delivery. This paper reviews the Christian view of the nature of spirituality, explains the concept of scientism and the main arguments against it, and provides my perspective on different worldview questions.

Christian Perspective of Spirituality and Ethics vs Postmodern Relativism

Religious or spiritual affiliations and one’s cultural background influence their perspectives and beliefs about health. Furthermore, the Christian view on the perceived meaning of life, beliefs, values, and life experiences influence many decisions in healthcare (Rego et al., 2020). Christianity views spirituality as the theological and religious explanations of the nature of God (how, what, and who). Furthermore, spirituality signifies the interaction and personal relationship between the Christian and God. Christians perceive God as the external, supreme, all-powerful, creator, preserver, and controller of everything in the world (Hogg et al., 2022).

Christians have an immanent and transcendent belief in God’s monotheistic conception views. Christians have adopted the belief systems presented in the teachings of the Holy Bible. The belief systems explain the meaning, truth, and purpose of human life and experiences. Therefore, Christians achieve a transcendent state of experience when they pursue the Bible teachings and belief systems. Consequently, when making life choices, humans’ spirituality ensures that their decisions are grounded on the will and guidance of God.

Spirituality also ensures that Christians are more accepting in life. Christians believe God is the author and determiner of all human fate, good or bad. Ecclesiastes 7:14 states that when times are good, people should be happy, but when times are bad, they should make considerations, for God has made both good and bad so that no one can discover anything about their future (Holy Bible, New International Version (NIV), 2011 HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper). Furthermore, Christians perceive ethics as making decisions following God’s instructions in the Bible. Therefore, they conform to God’s expectations without any ambiguity. Christians rely on ethics and spirituality when making decisions and accepting choices that restore life, augment well-being, and lessen suffering.

In contrast, postmodern relativism posits that there is no absolute truth, and the world can be perceived and interpreted in innumerable ways (Holtz, 2020). Furthermore, postmodernism views spirituality as ambiguous when arguing about the existence of God. In ethical arguments, postmodernism believes there is no absolute truth, and one should not discard contradictory opinions. Postmodernism relativism is vital in healthcare delivery as it embraces diversity and promotes multicultural care by accepting no one holds the monopoly of truth about ethics and spirituality, and doubtful cultural perspectives should not be disregarded.

Scientism and Arguments Against it

Scientism is a broad-based view and belief that the research methods and assumptions of the natural and physical sciences provide more scientific knowledge than other disciplines, including social sciences, humanities, and philosophy. The hard sciences rely on testable, replicable, and factual data, making them reliable. On the other hand, soft sciences are considered to present conjectures and guesses that are irreplicable and prone to changes, making them unreliable and inferior to hard sciences. Soft sciences are subjective and provide information on human nature that may have contrasting ideas on one principle (Moreland, 2018 HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper). Therefore, scientism perceives that the hard sciences possess more excellent fundamental knowledge and intellectual authority than the soft sciences.

The two main arguments against scientism are that it is self-refuting or self-referentially incoherent and scientism’s (false) dilemma (Hietanen et al., 2020). One main global objection is that science is built upon non-scientific grounds. For instance, scholars argue that some metaphysical assumptions, such as presuming that other minds or the external world exist, are necessary for science. Moreover, human capacities such as introspection, memory, senses, and inference are considered to belong to the non-scientific foundation (Hietanen et al., 2020). Therefore, these dependencies provide significant dilemmas to the scientism that closer scrutiny would render scientism false.

The second major objection against scientism is that it is self-refuting. Scientism states that one should only believe or accept the claims obtained through scientific means. Therefore, scientism must be able to be scientifically justified. However, Hietanen et al. (2020 HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper) assert that scientism is not and cannot be justified solely on scientific research and, therefore, it would be irrational to accept scientism.

Ultimate Reality

Ultimate reality refers to the existing actuality surpassing the world’s non-physical and physical dimensions. It is the source of all that prevails in the world, the central connecting point, and the absolute power. In the Christian perspective, it is the eternal and supreme being whose transcendent presence governs the universe (Diller, 2021 HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper). Verses in the Bible support Christians’ beliefs that there exists a supreme being. God is the ultimate reality. He endures eternally and is described as omniscient, omnipresent, and omnipotent.

I believe I am a product of God’s creation and interactions with the environment around me. My family, community and other environmental factors have determined my mannerism, values, and life perceptions. These experiences influence my decision-making processes. Had I been born to a different religion or community, I believe I would be a different person with other views on the nature of life.

Nature of the Universe

The universe does not have eternity. Biblical texts add to this view. In the Genesis account of creation, the universe had a beginning. It also has an end, as outlined in the Revelation account of the destiny of humanity and the world. The universe is also changing continuously, with time being the primary form of change. Energy processes drive changes, determining the direction and extent of prioritization processes driving this change. These processes include energy conversion, competition, evolution, and extinction. They are necessary in determining the nature and direction of the universe.

Competition is an unavoidable life aspect on earth and involves struggling to acquire scarce resources that provide the essential energy that drives different processes. When some components cannot cope with the competitive processes either due to disastrous events or effects of direct competition, they are removed from the world through extinction. Other habitats of the universe evolve to adapt to changes and ensure a better environmental fit. These processes are necessary for the universe and provide a form of natural equilibrium and balance, ensuring that the universe optimally responds to all the needs of its inhabitants.

What is a Human Being?

According to the Christian view, human beings are God’s creation, created in His likeness and image. The mystery of Jesus Christ finishes the picture of humans, and He is the ideal representation of God and the only heavenly and human creature revealing God to humans. Human beings are one entity encompassing the soul, body, and mind within them. Human beings derive their identity from humanity, not acts of consciousness, independence, and freedom. Human beings engage in political, social, and economic activities to benefit all people. HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper

Furthermore, all people possess cognition. Essential components of cognition include memory, awareness, perception, cognitive capacity, and comprehension. These cognitive processes enable people to live fulfilling lives and interact well with others. Unlike other species in the universe, humans can also communicate with each other. Moreover, people have a high degree of reason and will, are superior to other universal components, and have the freedom to engage and act in deliberate ways, with the capacity for giving justifications for their deeds (Stahl & Kilner, 2019 HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper). Lastly, all people have intrinsic human worth and dignity, which must be unconditionally valued and respected.

What is Knowledge?

Knowledge refers to the skills, information, facts, and understanding one gain through educative experiences. Education involves the formal and informal processes that provide an avenue for people to acquire knowledge. The Lancet Public Health (2020) states that there is an intrinsic link between education and the well-being and health of the population. Moreover, education is strongly associated with healthy behaviors, reduced morbidity, and increased life expectancy.

Furthermore, attaining educational experiences and subsequent knowledge and skills plays a vital role in shaping income, employment, and opportunities. The proper professional education and expertise equip a person with complex cognitive thought processes to tackle complex or specialized tasks. For instance, a doctor can correctly diagnose, prescribe suitable treatment therapies, and treat patients. In the same vein, a nurse is prepared to promote health, prevent illnesses, and care for the sick, incapacitated, and dying patients through educational experiences and knowledge. HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper

Basis of Ethics

There is no single idea that satisfactorily answers the question of the genesis of humans. Investigations and research knowledge have been significantly expanded regarding human beings. However, there are human aspects that science alone cannot answer. Philosophical, ethical, and religious beliefs provide explanations that compensate for the deficient knowledge. The basis of my ethics is grounded on religious beliefs, awareness, and personal opinions of what is morally right or wrong. My upbringing and parental guidance have also shaped my ethical basis. I have been taught to respect everyone, embrace cultural and spiritual diversity, be honest in my dealings, and promote the well-being of all people. I also conform to state laws and public consensus when making potentially ethical decisions. HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper

The Purpose of My Existence

My first purpose for existing is to have a family, procreate, have a fulfilling nursing profession, and have a decent income that will enable me to cater for all my needs. I also exist to be a good person and a blessing in other people’s lives, helping them whenever I can. I envision a society that embraces humanity at all costs.


This paper has provided insight into the Christian perspective of the nature of ethics and spirituality and the essence of postmodern relativism within healthcare settings. Healthcare workers should embrace cultural and religious diversity when dealing with challenging clinical situations. Additionally, one should be introspective and define their worldview on ultimate reality, the nature of the universe, the basis of one’s ethics, and the purpose of existence. These questions give one a redefined sense and a better outlook on life. HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper

HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper References

Diller, J. (2021). God and Other Ultimates (E. N. Zalta, Ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy; Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/god-ultimates/

Hietanen, J., Turunen, P., Hirvonen, I., Karisto, J., Pättiniemi, I., & Saarinen, H. (2020). How Not to Criticize Scientism. Metaphilosophy, 51(4), 522–547. https://doi.org/10.1111/meta.12443

Hogg, W. R., Marty, M. E., Sullivan, L. E., Fredericksen, L., Lindberg, C. H., & Hick, J. (2022, August 13). Christianity. Encyclopedia Britannica. HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/Christianity

Holtz, P. (2020). Does Postmodernism Really Entail a Disregard for the Truth? Similarities and Differences in Postmodern and Critical Rationalist Conceptualizations of Truth, Progress, and Empirical Research Methods. Frontiers in Psychology, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.545959

Holy Bible, New International Version (NIV). (2011). Ecclesiastes 7:14 NIV – – Bible Gateway. Www.biblegateway.com.

Moreland, J. P. (2018). What Is Scientism? Crossway.org. Retrieved from https://www.crossway.org/articles/what-is-scientism/

Rego, F., Gonçalves, F., Moutinho, S., Castro, L., & Nunes, R. (2020). The influence of spirituality on decision-making in palliative care outpatients: a cross-sectional study. BMC Palliative Care, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12904-020-0525-3

Stahl, D., & Kilner, J. (2019 HLT-306V Topic 2 Discussion Paper). The Image of God, Bioethics, and Persons with Profound Intellectual Disabilities. Journal of the Christian Institute on Disability, 6(1-2), 19-40.

The Lancet Public Health. (2020). Education: a neglected social determinant of health. The Lancet Public Health, 5(7), e361. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2468-2667(20)30144-4

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